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Full text of "Annual Report of the Inspectors of the State Almshouse and Primary School at Monson, 1866-72"

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PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 24 



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE rj I ' 

INSPECTORS 

OF THE 

TC\oJsJb', 

Estate almshouse 



STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL, 



MONS'ON 



OCTOBER, 1866. 



BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS, 
No. 4 Spring Lane. 

1867. 



TTGn. 

A 



€ommon«jcaltl) of jUasscutyustfts. 



INSPECTORS' REPORT 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

Another financial year of this almshouse is finished, and, in 
presenting its results, we take pleasure in stating that they 
compare favorably with those given in previous reports. In 
looking back to the earlier years of the institution, we can see 
that a marked improvement has been wrought in the alms- 
house system, and we are hopeful pf still further improvements, 
as observation and study shall develop new facts and sug- 
gestions. 

The Act of the last legislature, approved May 3d, establish- 
ing a State Primary School in connection with this Almshouse, 
has kept affairs in an unsettled condition for the past five 
months. The inmate population has been radically changed 
under the direction of the Board of State Charities, the aged, 
infirm and demented having been transferred to the other 
almshouses, and their places supplied by children. This 
change has necessitated alterations in the buildings to render 
classification more thorough, and prevent intercourse between 
the children and adults. 

Such repairs upon the buildings as were necessary have been 
made, and a new piggery, fifty feet long by twenty-five feet 
wide, has been built, lumber for which was principally obtained 
upon the farm. 



4 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

A new grist mill, to take the place of one worn out, has been 
obtained at a cost of $295, with an additional expense of 
$122.44 for pulleys and belts to operate the same. 

New washing machinery will be needed before the expiration 
of another year, and it is in contemplation to remove the 
washing department from its present location over the engine- 
room, where it is a constant source of annoyance on account of 
leaking into the room below, to a ground floor. 

A new play-house for the boys is needed. The present play- 
house is partially occupied by adults as a lodging-room. If it 
were wholly vacated and converted into a male hospital, the 
female hospital in the principal building could be removed to 
that now occupied by the men, much to the advantage of those 
who live in the main building. 

A small appropriation to meet the expense of these improve- 
ments will be asked of the next legislature. 

The products of the farm for the present year .are estimated 
at $16,262.38,— an increase of $3,249.09 over the value of pro- 
ductions in 1865. Formerly the expense for milk was more 
than $3,000 annually. This year only $809.76 has been 
expended for this article, while the amount produced upon the 
farm is valued at $2,911.44. 

The farm already produces hay enough to keep all the cows 
needed in winter ; but there is a lack of pasturage in summer, 
and for several years pastures have been rented at no little 
inconvenience. In our last report we advised the purchase of 
more pasture land, and we now renew the recommendation. 

The number of inmates in the Almshouse at the close of the 

541 
1,209 
838 
351 
176 
385 
543 
62 



last financial year was 

Number admitted the present year, including births, 
Discharged, indentured, deserted, and died, 
Transferred to Primary School, .... 

Eemaining in the Almshouse, 

Pupils in the School, ...... 

Average number supported through the year, 
Decrease from the number supported last year, . 
Cost per week of supporting each inmate, • 



This is an increase of seventy-two cents per week over the 
cost of supporting inmates last year. In explanation of this 



1866.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 5 

we would refer you to the Superintendent's report, which we 
append to our own. 

There have been received from the Tewksbury Almshouse 147 
inmates, from the Bridgewater Almshouse 78, from Rainsford 
Island Hospital 3, mostly children for the Primary School. 

The schools have been continued through the year with an 
average weekly attendance of 265 pupils. Mrs. Harriet E. 
Darte has filled the position of Principal, and Misses Hattie E. 
Kellogg, Jane E. Hastings, Mary W. Kellogg, Orpha P. Kent, 
and Irene I. Burnette, have been her assistants. Under their 
instruction the schools have been remarkably successful. 

The Physician's report exhibits a healthful condition of the 
inmates. Measles prevailed extensively among the children in 
the summer, causing several deaths. With this exception, no 
epidemic or contagious disease has visited the institution. The 
deaths have decreased from 99 last year to 67 this year. The 
Physician complains that persons dangerously sick are still 
brought to the almshouse, in defiance of a law expressly for- 
bidding it. 

Rev. Wm. K. Vaill, our chaplain, resigned last April ; since 
which time Rev. E. M. Haynes, of Palmer, has officiated in that 
capacity, and his report is annexed. 

Eighty-seven of our children have found homes in families 
the past year. Many others could have been furnished with 
similar homes had they been older. Persons who apply for 
children usually desire such as are old enough to earn their 
living ; but those who take the younger ones are more successful 
in their efforts to train them up in a proper manner. 

In years past our indentured children have been left in a 
great measure to the mercy of their masters and mistresses, 
there being no provision of law by which the Inspectors inden- 
turing them can visit them and learn of their treatment except 
at their own expense. We have, however, visited children 
when any serious difficulty has arisen, but have not felt it 
incumbent upon us to visit them all. When complaints are 
made we are apt to get but one side of the story, and unless 
some one visits the family where the child is living, the true 
condition' of affairs cannot be ascertained. 

The apparent necessity for examining into the condition and 
treatment of our indentured boys and girls has influenced the 



6 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Board of State Charities to appoint an agent to visit them. 
This agent is just entering upon his duties. 

Though we are sometimes pained at the conduct of a rebel- 
lious child, or the abuse which a master has inflicted, we are 
frequently encouraged by reports of a favorable character and 
the assurance that children have found excellent homes, where 
they enjoy all the kindness and care that parents can bestow 
upon their own offspring. 

Since the children have been mostly removed from the alms- 
house to the Primary School, there will be few to indenture 
from this department. 



SALARIES OF SUPERINTENDENT AND OFFICERS 

John M. Brewster, jr., M. D., Superintendent, 

Mrs. C. S. Brewster, Matron, 

E. M. Haynes, Chaplain, 

Joseph D. Nichols, Physician, 

Joseph H. Brewster, AssH SupH and Clerk, 

Harriet E. Darte, Teacher, . 

Hattie E. Kellogg, Teacher, . 

Jane E. Hastings, Teacher, . 

Mary W. Kellogg, Teacher, . 

Orpha P. Kent, Teacher, 

Irene I. Burnette, Teacher, . 

Flora Hill, Nurse, .... 

Mary W. Richmond, Assist ant- Matron, . 

Lucyette Mason, Seamstress, . 

Sarah C. Alford, Assistant, . . ' . 

John N. Lacey, Engineer, 8fc, 

Willard J. Clark, Cookin inmates' department, charge 

of fire apparatus and ivater-works, 
John McDonald, Baker, 
Edwin Doane, Farmer, . 
Charles Adams, Farmer, 
King S. Sedgwick, Watchman, 
Joseph W. Mason, Assistant, 



11,200 00 


300 00 


200 00 


900 00 


700 00 


250 00 


156 00 


156 00 


156 00 


156 00 


156 00 


192 00 


250 00 


192 00 


192 00 


600 00 


500 00 


416 00 


525 00 


420 00 


300 00 


240 00 



INSPECTORS. 



Gordon M. Fisk, 
George Chandler, 
Eleazer Porter, 



$160 00 
160 00 
160 00 



1866.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 7 

The Primary School. 

On the recommendation of the Board of State Charities, the 
legislature of 1866 passed an Act establishing a State Primary 
School, in connection with the Monson State Almshouse. The 
larger portion of the buildings has been set apart, by direction 
of this Board, for the purposes named in the Act, and various 
alterations and improvements have been made, to correspond 
with the same. 

Mr. F. B. Sanborn, Secretary of the Board of Charities, has 
interested himself deeply in the success of this school, and to 
him are chiefly due the suggestions and plans which are to 
shape and govern it. These plans and suggestions are cor- 
dially seconded by Dr. Brewster, the Superintendent, who is 
laboring diligently to carry them into effect. 

An appropriation of $2,000 was made by the legislature to 
make alterations for the accommodation of the school children, 
and carry out the plan of separating them from the adults. 

A recitation-room has been provided for the first division of 
the school, blinds for the windows of this and the second divi- 
sion have been added, and desks have been put into the three 
lower divisions, rendering the several school-rooms as pleasant 
and attractive as any in the State. 

A new play-house for the girls is in process of erection in 
their yard, and it is the design of the Superintendent to add 
fountains and other ornamental fixtures to the play-grounds. 

The school was formally opened on the 3d of September, when 
three hundred and forty-five children were admitted from the 
almshouse, and graded into five divisions, under the teachers 
who had been employed in the almshouse schools. The 
number now attending the school is three hundred and 
eighty-five. 

By the advice of the State Board of Charities, Eev. Charles 
F. Foster, for several years connected with the schools at the 
Tewksbury Almshouse, has been appointed Principal of the 
Primary School, and Mrs. Foster, his wife, assistant in the first 
division. They will enter upon their duties the 1st of October. 

Under the regulations of the school, no child is to be bound 
out to service in the manner prescribed for indenturing pau- 
pers. This custom is superseded by a more humane and 
desirable system. Children admitted to the school, become 



8 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

State pupils during their minority, or till they are discharged 
by the Board of State Charities. They may be placed in fam- 
ilies for a term of years, and a written agreement between the 
Inspectors and the persons taking them provides for their 
education, their good treatment, and proper training. They 
are to remain under control of the State authorities, subject to 
visitation from an agent of the Board of State Charities, the 
Inspectors, and Superintendent, and may be removed at any 
time when the Inspectors consider it advisable. 

Full of hope and anxious solicitude for the welfare of these 
children of the State, we have faith that the system inaugurated 
by the Primary School will work happy results for them and 
the charitable purposes of the Commonwealth. 

It has been necessary to increase the number of officers, to 
correspond with the growing cares and wants of the institution. 
In several instances, salaries have been increased, in order to 
retain officers whose services have seemed indispensable. 

We would call attention to the report of the Superintendent, 
which embraces a financial and statistical record for the past 
year, with suggestions as to the future wants of the institution. 

In closing, we would say that the untiring devotion of the 
Superintendent to the interests committed to his charge is wor- 
thy of our commendation. We would also make favorable 
mention of Mr. Joseph H. Brewster, the Assistant-Superintend- 
ent and Clerk, who for eight years has faithfully served the 
State ; Dr. J. D. Nichols, our Physician, for his kindness and 
care of the sick ; Mrs. C. S. Brewster, the Matron, for her 
energetic management of the household concerns ; the several 
teachers for their earnest labors in the instruction of the chil- 
dren, and the other officers for the faithful performance of their 
respective duties. 

GORDON M. FISK, 
GEORGE CHANDLER, 
ELEAZER PORTER, 

Inspectors. 

State Almshouse and Primary School, | 
Monson, Oct. 1, 1866. j 



1866.] < PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Inspectors of the State Almshouse, Monson. 

Gentlemen : — The undersigned has the honor to present the 
following Annual Report for the financial year ending September 

30, 186ti :— 

The number in the institution at the date of last report, 

October 1, 1865, 541 

The number admitted since, including paupers, Primary 

School children and 19 born in the institution, . . 1,209 

Whole number supported since last report, . . . 1,750 
Number discharged and deserted, .... 771 
transferred to State Primary School, . 351 
died, . . . ."",/. . .67 
Remaining in Almshouse, Oct. 1 , 1866, — 

Men, .33 

Women, . . 62 

Boys, 37 

Girls, 44 

Remaining in Primary School, Oct. 1, 1866, — 

Boys, 278 

Girls, 107 

Total, 561 

1,750 

Of the number discharged, 87 are children indentured and 
on trial. 

Average number supported through the year, 543 \. 

Average number of school children per week through the- 
year, 265. 

2 



10 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Persons admitted this 


year, 


were 


born 


in,-— 








Massachusetts, 386 


Maine, . . . 














10 


New Hampshire, 














5 


Yermont, 














14 


Connecticut, . 














31 


Rhode Island, . 














5 


New York, 














, 79 


Other States, . 














38 


Ireland, . 














378 


England, 














98 


Scotland, 














. 41 


Germany, 














. 17 


France, . 














. 10 


British Provinces, 














. 44 


Other countries, 














16 


Unknown, 














. 37 



1,209 

The ages of paupers and school children received during the 
year are as follows : — 









<o 






o> 


o 




















<M 


CO 








t- 








o 


8 S 


I; 


I* 


t* 


Is 


M 


f S 


§ § 


o 




S a 


i t 


* a 


jg ■§ 


£ a 


£ 9 


£ ■§ 


as 


£ B 


£3 




3 


>, p 


to « 








Qj C3 


4> 03 


<y rt 


o 03 




!> 






M 


M 


PQ 


PQ 


pq 


pq 


pq 


pq 


oq 


o 


H 


132 


153 


120 


116 


281 


174 


118 


67 


34 


9 


5 


1,209 





Of the number received, 147 came from Tewksbury State 
Almshouse ; 78 from Bridgewater State Almshouse ; 3 from 
Rainsford Island Hospital ; and 594 from Palmer, — nearly all 
of whom were travelling paupers. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

I. Assets. 

[By Valuation of David Bryant, Esq., October 1, 1866.] 

Real Estate, — 
176 acres of land, viz., 25 acres of woodland, and 

151 acres of tillage, pasturage and unproductive, $14,878 69 



1866.] public document—No. 24. 11 

Buildings, $96,060 00 



Total real estate, . . . . . . $110,938 69 

Personal Estate, — 
Live stock on the farm, . ■ . $5,547 00 
Products of the farm, .... 10,352 01 
Carriages and agricultural implements, 3,263 05 
Machinery and mechanical fixtures, . 4,934 46 
Beds and bedding, in inmates' depart- 
ment, 10,387 11 

Other property in inmates' department, 4,358 74 
Personal property in Superintendent's 



department, 


. 3,627 09 


Ready-made clothing, . 


. 6,769 02 


Dry goods, .... 


. 855 93 


Provisions and groceries, 


. 1,861 96 


Drugs and medicines, . 


. 728 60 


Fuel 


. 4,788 17 


Library, .... 


. 608 93 


Total personal property, 


CQ AGO 07 




Total assets, 


.' .$169,020 69 



II. Receipts. 

Cash on hand at the beginning of the year, . . $562 74 

Amount of cash received from the annual appropria- 
tion for 1866, . 37,479 41 

Amount of cash received from unexpended appro- 
tionof 1865, 9,709 56 

Amount of cash received from appropriations to meet 

a deficiency of 1865, . . . . . . 1,042 18 

Amount of cash received from special appropriation 
for the benefit of the State Primary School estab- 
lished at Monson, 1866, . . . . 688 58 



Total cash received from appropriations, . . $49,482 47 
Amount received from other sources, viz. : — 
From farm and farm produce, .... 1,045 16 

From towns and individuals, 74 00 

From all other sources, 291 90 



Total receipts, $50,893 53 



12 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



III. Expenditures. 

[A.] Current Expenditures. 

First, — Salaries of Superintendent and officers, 

(11,209.14 of the above was for educational pur- 
poses.) 
Paid for labor, 

Total for salaries, wages and labor, . 



Second,— Provisions and Supplies 
Meats of all kinds, 
Fish of all kinds, .... 
Fruit and vegetables, 
795 barrels of flour, average cost per 

barrel delivered at Palmer depot, 

•10.89HI, • • 
Grain and meal for table, 
Grain and meal for stock, 
Tea, coffee and chocolate, 
Sugar and molasses, 
Milk and cheese, . 
Salt and other groceries, 
All other provisions, 

Total for provisions and supplies, 



Third, — Clothing, shoes, hats and caps, 

Fourth, — Fuel and lights, 

Fifth, — Medicine and medical supplies, 

Sixth, — Furniture, dry goods and bedding, . 

Seventh, — Transportation and travelling expenses, 

Eighth, — Ordinary repairs, .... 

Ninth, — Expenses of Inspectors, . 

Tenth, — All other expenses, .... 

Total current expenditures, . 



$4,523 3T 


569 71 


168 71 


8,659 37 


91 25 


1,102 12 


884 49- 


1,596 84 


862 10 


913 76 


1,032 43 



18,330 80 



98 76 



$8,429 56 



20,404 15 



. 1,668 99 


. 5,650 82 


221. 72 


. 5,981 44 


598 30 


. 1,147 29 


480 00 


. 3,526 23 


. $48,108 50 



[B.] Extraordinary Expenditures. 

1st. Buildings and improvements. 
One piggery, 50 feet long, 25 feet wide, 10 feet posts, 
containing 10 sties, $279.26 ; blinds on school- 



1866.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 



13 



rooms, 8190.87 ; Lumber and labor on new build- 
ings for Primary School girls, 8252.50, . . 8722 63 
2d. Extraordinary repairs. 

Underground drains in court yard, 861.21 ; fences 
around yards and alterations in buildings for 
State Primary School, 8408.08 ; pulleys and belts 

for engine room, 8122.44, 591 73 

3d. Miscellaneous expenses. 

School-room furniture, 8254.05 ; lightning conduc- 
tors, 892.10 ; Grist-mill, 8295 ; lumber for fire 
ladders attached to main buildings, 812.40, . 653 55 

Total extraordinary expenditures, . . . 81,967 91 



Total expenditures, 

IY. Liabilities. 
Miscellaneous bills, as per vouchers, 

Y. Cash Account. 
Dr. — To cash on hand, October 1, 1865, 

since drawn from the State treasury 

at sunday times, . 
received from sale of produce, . 
received from sale of other articles, 
received from all other sources, 

Total, 

Cr. — By cash paid for money borrowed, . 
for interest on bills, . 
for salaries, wages and labor, 
for provisions and supplies, 
for fuel and lights, . 
for clothing, dry goods, bedding 

and furniture, 
for repairs and improvements, 
for all other ordinary expenses, 
for all other extraordinary ex 

penses, 
into the State treasury, 



850,076 41 



8471 06 



8562 74 



. 48,919 73 

. 1,045 16 

291 90 

74 00 


.850,893 53 


. 8579 25 
19 60 
. 8,429 5Q 
. 20,404 15 
. 5,650 82 


\ 7,650 43 
. 2,461 60 
. 4,227 45 


653 55 
817 12 



850,893 53 



14 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



VI. Summary of the Above. 



Total receipts, 

Total expenditures, 

Cash paid into the State treasury, 

Total resources,* . 



. $50,893 53 

. 50,076 41 

817 12 

. 8,832 01 



Balance of liabilities in favor of the institution, $8,361.05. 
The following statement shows the annual cost for supporting 
paupers and school children : — 

Dr. — Cash on hand October 1, 1865, 

since drawn from State treasury, . 
received from all other sources, 
To decrease cash value of personal estate, 

Total, ...... 



. $562 74 


. 46,134 70 


. 1,411 06 


. 3,346 79 


.$51,455 29 



Cr. — By cash paid into State treasury, . $817 12 
for current expenses, 50,638 17 



$51,455 29 



Dividing the current expenses by the average number of 
inmates, gives an average annual cost of $93.20 ; and dividing 
this sum by 52, the total number of weeks, we have as the 
weekly cost $1.79||. 



Estimated Produce 


of the Farm. 




5,844 pounds pork, ... . . $935 04 


7,344 " beef, . 








881 28 


470 " veal, . 








75 20 


23 pigs sold, . 








124 50 


6 calves sold, 








19 50 


102 tons hay, .... 








2,244 00 


3 " corn stalks, . 








36 00 


25 " corn fodder, 








300 00 


7 " vegetable crop feed, 








84 00 


6J " mowed oats, 








149 50 


4,510 pounds squashes, 








90 20 



* $7,520.59 balance of the unexpended appropriation of 1866, and $1,311.42 of the 
unexpended special appropriation of 1866. 



1866.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24, 



15 



2,660 


pound 


3 bones, . 




75 bushels buckwheat, . 




1,574 


u 


potatos, . 




2,420 


u 


carrots, . 




62 


a 


onions, . 




64 


a 


yellow corn, . 




941 


a 


sweet corn, 




1 


a 


quinces, . 




250 


a 


blood beets, 




30 


a 


sugar beets, 




50 


a 


mangel-wurzel, 


130 


a 


parsnips, 


870 


a 


French turnips, 


2,062 


u 


English turnips, 


26i 


u 


tomatos, . 


6 


a 


native apples, , 




13 


a 


beans, . 




9 


u 


seed beans, 




ui 


u 


peas, 




99| 


u 


cucumbers, 




46 


quarts 


currants, 




150 


pounds pie plant, 




2,593 heads cabbage, . 




48,524 


quarts 


milk, 




2,450 


pounds butter, . 




344 cords ] 


nanure, . 






Lettuce, 






Garden seeds, . 




127 


cords wood, 




1,200 


pounc 


Is tobacco, 






Sundry small articles, 





$44 20 


62 25 


975 88 


1,210 00 


62 00 


69 12. 


90 72 


3 50 


175 00 


19 50 


28 00 


97 50 


478 50 


721 70 


21 20 


7 50 


52 00 


36 00 


29 00 


82 58 


4 60 


12 00 


311 16 


2,911 44 


. 1,102 50 


1,376 00 


20 00 


5 00 


889 00 


360 00 


65 31 


816,262 38 



Permanent improvements have been made upon the farm, as 
in former years. From four to five acres have been seeded to 
grass the past season, increasing thus much the amount of land 
suitable for mowing. The building of stone walls, the under- 
draining of wet and the reclaiming of waste land, has been as 
vigorously carried on as time and opportunity would permit. 



16 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

The adult inmate help for out-door work has been very light, 
and, in the change which has been made, in order to make this 
institution the home for children, we shall feel still more the 
need of adult male workers, and our improvements upon the 
farm must, of course! be somewhat lessened. This we shall 
-expect, for it cannot well be avoided; at all events, whatever 
is done in time to come in the way of improvements, must be 
obtained mostly from hired labor. From our own woodland? 
we have furnished ourselves with timber and lumber nearly 
sufficient to build a good piggery, twenty-five by fifty feet, hav- 
ing ten feet posts, and so arranged as to give us ten sties^ each 
one of which very conveniently accommodates five full-grown 
swine. . - 

The production of milk from the farm this year, being 48,524 
quarts, is greater, by 11,346 quarts than last year. 

The amount paid. for milk bought this year has been $809.76, 
and less,. by 81,272.95, than was paid last year. Though this 
sum paid has been less than in any previous year of my admin- 
istration, still the farm ought to supply the institution with all 
the milk it needs, without buying, and, in order to do this, 
inasmuch as we cannot summer near all the stock we can win- 
ter, and are obliged to hire pasturing at great expense and 
inconvenience every season, would it not be economy to pur- 
chase more pasture land, and thus enable ourselves to furnish 
from the farm all our own milk ? The soiling yearly of two to 
three acres, furnishing twenty-five to thirty tons of fodder, is 
not a sufficient substitute for the want of more pasturing. 
Having in former reports made suggestions in accordance with 
the above, and as often failed to accomplish what has seemed 
to myself to be quite important, I would again respectfully 
recommend that there be an additional purchase of pasture 
land, and that an appropriation be called for to meet the 
demand. 

The hay crop was not as large as we anticipated early in the 
season. The other crops, though not gathered, give promise of 
an abundant harvest. The potato, turnip and carrot crops 
appear to be particularly good. Of their large estimated value, 
I would refer you to the column which shows the estimates of 
the various farm products. In this connection, I desire espe- 
cially to draw attention to the raising of turnips. I do not 



1866.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 17 

think our farmers place a proper estimate upon the root crops. 
The cereals often occupy their time, to the neglect of other 
crops. Of the root crops, the turnip is, perhaps, the most valu- 
able. It is highly nutritious, and, as food for stock, it is not 
surpassed. In sowing more turnips, the call for carrots will be 
diminished, and, as the cultivation of the latter is generally 
more difficult than that of the former, we should secure to our- 
selves a great advantage, by changing a little our system of 
farming. In some parts of Great Britain, the turnip is regarded 
as an important product, and is cultivated largely. To 
improve the condition of stock, nothing helps more than a free 
use of good turnips. I am told that many breeders of fine 
horses feed turnips and carrots as articles of food, and that their 
coats become smooth and glossy, and the animals thrive and 
look well. When will our farmers learn to place a higher 
value upon the root crops, and cultivate them upon a larger 
scale ? 

Various repairs will be wanted the coming year, along with 
the outside painting of the almshouse buildings, and to meet 
this necessary additional expense, an increase of the annual 
appropriation will be needed. True economy requires that the 
buildings be well painted early in the spring. 

The total expenditures, extraordinary and current, for the 
financial year just closed, are $50,076.41. This sum is less 
than the total expenditures of last year by $3,932.97. The 
total assets this year are $2,582.96 greater than last year. 
The increased value of the buildings is $4,776 over last year. 
The increased value of the farm is $1,153.82 over last year. 

Owing to depreciation in the value of a portion of the per- 
sonal property, as appraised, and by not making any allowance 
in the way of credit for the increased valuation of the real 
estate, while, at the same time, the average number supported 
through the year has been less by sixty-two, and the number of 
officers increased, and the salaries of some made higher, to 
meet the exigencies of the times, the apparent cost per head is 
greater than last year. 

The reports of the Physician and Chaplain will be found 
appended to my own, to which I would respectfully draw the 
attention of the Board. 



18 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

I cannot close this Report without making mention of the 
uniform courtesy which has marked the official relationship of 
all the officers of the institution, and of their faithfulness and 
devotion to duty as assigned to each ; and for their readiness to 
do whatever has been promotive of my own happiness and 
success, would I accord the highest praise. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen: — The commingling of the vicious with the 
worthy poor in our State almshouses has been seen for many 
years to be a great evil, and painful to be endured. Children 
by the hundreds, innocent and unsuspecting, associating, more 
or less, with the adults, eating and lodging in many instances 
at the same table, and in the same rooms, have been subject to 
the debasing influences of the abandoned of every grade and 
name. Precaution has seemed, heretofore, to be almost unavail- 
ing. Such companionship, the State ought not, and, I trust, 
will not, in the future, inflict on its young and virtuous poor. 
Thanks to the legislature of 1866, for the provisions made by 
means of which orphan children, and those neglected by their 
parents, shall be carefully separated from the adults, and placed 
in an institution by themselves, where the stigma of pauperism 
is removed, and the brand of its burning iron no longer 
impressed upon them, and where, instead, the healthful, cheering 
influences of a higher and a better life are theirs, stimulating 
to greater effort to be respectable and useful, and prepared to 
make good members of society. 

By the new law of 1866, chapter 209, the State Primary 
School was established in connection with the Monson State 
Almshouse, and was opened formally on the 3d of September, 
1866, when three hundred and forty-five pupils were admitted 
from the Monson Almshouse. By this transfer of names from 
the almshouse register to that of the Primary School, the chil- 
dren are led to see that they are State pupils, and to feel that 
they are no longer State paupers. With full and happy hearts 
they accept the change. God grant that these children of the 
State may love and honor Massachusetts, and long live to 



1866.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 19 

accomplish the good which she so much desires and expects 
them to do. 

In separating the girls from the women, I am happy to 
report that the change has already been very great and highly 
satisfactory. The wonder is that the separation was not made 
years before. The girls are now more quiet and easier man- 
aged, and are happier and better every way. The boys have 
always been more by themselves than the girls, and the change 
of course with them is not so great, and the necessity for it 
much less. 

To take the place of a poorly-ventilated, dark, damp, cheer- 
less, basement room, in cold and wet weather, a suitable build- 
ing, warm, well-lighted and ventilated for summer and winter, 
conveniently and pleasantly located, and entirely separate 
from all the other almshouse buildings, is now being erected, 
which is to be occupied and used by the girls out of school 
hours for light gymnastics and a general play-room. Though 
their lodging, dining-hall and school-rooms are in the main 
buildings, still this new structure will be their little home, and 
being made neat and comfortable, and under the immediate 
charge of a competent female assistant, they will there love to 
cluster, and sing their merry songs, and tell their childish 
stories. It is hoped that the more fortunate children, and 
their friends outside, will not feel envious of the little comforts 
which are provided for the orphan and friendless children of 
the State. 

The necessity of having more comfortable quarters for our 
boys in bad weather, outside the school-rooms, is equally press- 
ing with that of the girls, and I would therefore respectfully 
recommend that a small appropriation be made at the next 
session of the legislature, for erecting a suitable building for 
the boys, though it will need to be a little larger, for the reason 
that the boys are much more numerous than the girls ; but it 
should be of the same design with that of the girls, and used 
for the same purposes, and under the immediate charge of a 
male assistant. This building should be so placed in the boys' 
yard as to be easy of access, and at the same time having in 
view the location and plan of the one in the girls' yard, and 
thus give symmetry and completeness to both. 



20 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

The schools are well graded and in good condition. All the 
teachers for the past year have been women. The principal 
teacher, Mrs. Harriet E. Darte, who has for this period suc- 
cessfully and with credit to herself taken charge of the schools, 
retires on the 1st of October, instant, and is soon to fill as 
teacher a responsible position in a public institution of another 
State. The assistant teachers, I am happy to report, have been 
faithful, and merit commendation. 

Rev. Charles F. Foster, of the Tewksbury almshouse, has 
been recently appointed principal of the school, and will enter 
upon his duties at this date, (October 1st,) the beginning of 
the new school-year. Mr. Foster will also officiate as Chaplain. 

There have been five schools through the year, with seven 
teachers, six being employed daily at the same time, and the 
seventh as substitute, when any of the others has been absent, 
having a vacation. The average number of pupils by the 
week for the year has been 265. Having of late received into 
our schools a large number of pupils transferred from Bridge- 
water and Tewksbury, it may become necessary to open another 
school, as soon as a room can be provided for them. The 
present number of pupils is 385. Three school-rooms have 
been entirely furnished this summer with new furniture, con- 
sisting of the most approved tables and desks, such as are used 
in many of our public schools. A new class-room has been 
opened, leading out of the large school-room, adding greatly 
to the comfort and convenience of both teachers and pupils. 

It has been my purpose, as in former years, to find good 
homes for as many of the children as I have thought suitable 
to leave the institution, placing them in families where their 
treatment and training shall be kind and proper, and their 
education provided for in the public schools of the city or 
town where they may reside. During the past year, 87 
boys and girls have left the institution to obtain just such 
homes as we have above described. In some instances, it is 
true, we have found ourselves deceived and disappointed. To 
remedy in part the imposition which is sometimes practised in 
order to obtain a child, as well as to learn the actual condition 
each one after being put out, a visiting agent has been 
appointed by the Board of State Charities, in the person of the 
Hon. Gordon M. Fisk, of Palmer, who, I am confident, will 



1866.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 21 

faithfully discharge the duties of his office, and see that the 
abuses and neglect of indentured children, wherever found, 
are immediately corrected and permitted no longer to exist. 

That the charities of Massachusetts are not always perverted, 
(if ever,) needs but a partial glance at the care bestowed, the 
time, labor and strength devoted to the moral, intellectual and 
physical culture of the hundreds of dependent children here 
collected, and daily receiving the benefits of a magnanimous 
Christian commonwealth. The consciousness of fidelity to our 
trust, and of duty honestly discharged, for and in behalf of 
those committed to our keeping, bring their own sure reward. 
And in the future as in the past, while we remain in the public 
service, we pledge the consecration of our time and strength 
to the comfort, prosperity and happiness of all those within our 
gates. May the blessing of God continue to rest upon us, and 
crown our efforts with abundant success. 

I desire to append to this Keport the Act establishing the 
State Primary School, and the rules and regulations for the 
government of the same. 

In conclusion, I would thank you, gentlemen, for the man- 
ifestations of your kindness to myself and family, and for the 
assistance rendered to lighten the many cares and anxieties 
with which I am surrounded. 

JOHN M. BREWSTER, Jr., 

Superintendent of the State Almshouse and State Primary School, 

Monson, October 1, 1866. 



•2-2 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT 



To the Inspectors of the State Almshouse, Blonson. 

i 

Gentlemen : — In accordance with established usage, I now 
present you with the Thirteenth Annual Report of the Medical 
Department of this institution, for the year ending September 
30, 1866. 

The measles were brought in here from Worcester some time 
in July, by two children who had been exposed to the disease 
outside, and who came down with it in about ten days after 
admission. We had in all about eighty cases, and six deaths. 
Those who died were nearly all children who had been debili- 
tated by other diseases, and whose enfeebled systems readily 
succumbed to the new malady. 

The law to prevent towns from sending persons dangerously 
sick to the almshouse, has, so far as we are concerned, been 
better observed during the past year. There has been but one 
marked violation of the law referred to during the year. That 
occurred on the first day of October, 1865, and was so flagrant 
a case, that I cannot refrain from alluding to it. A man about 
forty years old, a Scotchman, was found by the wayside in 
West Springfield, Saturday evening, September 30, in a state 
of extreme prostration, not so much from disease as from 
fatigue and want of food. He was taken in and cared for 
during the night. In the morning he was somewhat revived, 
but still too weak to sit up. A few days of careful nursing 
would in all probability have restored his wasted energies, but 
that nursing he failed to receive. Weak and exhausted as he 
was, he was laid upon his back in an open express wagon, and 
on the Sabbath day, in violation of the laws of both God and 
man, carted some eighteen miles to this almshouse. The day 



1866.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 23 

was very hot, and the roads extremely dusty, and when he 
reached here he was in a comatose condition, with all the 
symptoms of congestion of the brain, and in about twelve 
hours after admission he died and made no sign. 

In the following tables, marked 1, 2 and 3, you will find the 
statistics of disease, death and births during the year. 

And now, gentlemen, you will please accept my thanks for 
your uniform kindness and courtesy. 

J. D. NICHOLS. 
Monson, October 1, 1866. 



24: 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



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1866.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24, 



25 



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1866.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 



27 



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28 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 3, 

Showing the No. of Births in the Monson State Almshouse during each 
Month, from Oct. 1, 1865, to Sept. 30, 1866, with a statement of the 
sex, and whether illegitimate, twins, or stillborn, the birth-place of the 
Mothers, and the whole No. since the opening of the Institution. 





es 

o 




TO 

0> 

3 


Illegitimate. 




e 

o 


Birth-place of Mothers. 


MONTHS. 


TO 


TO 

s 


*CS 

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H 


TO 
<S 

13 


q 

es 

u 
M 


3 
c 


TO 

<U 

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~ o 

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TO 

.2 

!§ 
S3 


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1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


November, . 




























December, . 


2 


- 


2 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


January, 


1 


- 


1 


~ 


1 


1 


- 


- 


" 


1 


- 


- 


- 


February, 


1 


- 


1 


~ 


~ 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


March, . 


6 


1 


5 


- 


2 


2 


- 


1 


2 


3 


1 


- 


- 


April, . 


3 


2 


1 


2 


1 


3 


- 


1 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


May, . 


5 


4 


1 


3 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


3 


2 


- 


- 


June, . 


2 


1 


1 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


July, . . 




























August, 




























September, . 




























Totals, . 


21 


9 


12 


5 


6 


11 


- 


2 


5 


11 


5 


- 


- 


Whole No. since ) 




























the opening of > 


267 


114 


153 


62 


57 


119 


8 


21 


57 


197 


10 


8 


11 


the Institution,) 





























1866.] PURLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 29 



CHAPLAIN'S REPORT. 



To the Inspectors of the State Almshouse , Monson. 

Gentlemen: — I have the honor to submit to your Board, 
(through your Superintendent.) the following Report. 

My services as Chaplain were commenced on the first Sab- 
bath in April, 1866. Since that time, I have discharged the 
duties of my office personally or otherwise, preaching once 
each Sabbath, and attending to such other service only as 
seemed needful to perform. A studied effort has been made 
to preach in a manner designed to interest and instruct the 
younger portion of the inmates of the institution, aiming to 
present and illustrate the truths of Scripture, and also the 
moral and social obligations, and, as far as possible, bring them 
within their comprehension ; and it is hoped, that if no imme- 
diate result has been accomplished, yet that some good impres- 
sions have been made, which in due time will appear, for the 
honor of manhood and the glory of God. 

For these children there is much hope. Cheering words 
have been addressed to the aged and unfortunate ; kind words 
to all who by their own follies, misfortunes, or the crimes of 
others, have been cast upon the charities of the State. 

I am happy to state that the Superintendent has afforded me 
every needed advantage in my endeavors to improve the moral 
and religious character of the inmates. He has invariably 
attended the public services on the Sabbath, offered timely sug- 
gestions, such as his daily experience alone enabled him to 
make, and most of the time personally superintended the 
Sabbath school. 

E. M. HAYNES, Chaplain. 

October 1st, 1866. 



30 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

APPENDIX. 



[Chapter 209 of the Acts of 1866.] 
An Act establishing a State Primary School at Monson. 

Sect. 1. There shall be established at the State Almshouse, in Mon- 
son, a state school for dependent and neglected children, which shall be 
known as the State Primary School. So much of the land and build- 
ings belonging to the State Almshouse, as in the judgment of the Board 
of State Charities shall be necessary, shall be used for the purposes of 
the school, and the remainder shall be used for the purposes of a state 
almshouse. There shall be received as pupils such children as are now 
maintained and instructed in the state almshouses ; and such children 
shall be maintained, taught, exercised and employed as their health and 
condition shall require, but they shall not be considered as inmates of 
the almshouse, nor allowed to mingle with the inmates, nor shall they 
be designated as paupers. 

Sect. 2. C tkid school shall be under the charge of the superintendent 
and inspectors of the State Almshouse at Monson, who shall prepare 
rules and regulations for the government of the school and the general 
management of its affairs ; and such rules and regulations, when 
approved by the Governor and Council, and placed on record in the 
office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, shall be and remain in 
force, until altered or amended with the approval of the Governor and 
Council. 

Sect. 3. All needful officers for said school shall be appointed, and 
their compensation fixed by the superintendent, subject to the approval 
of the inspectors. 

Sect. 4. For the purpose of instruction and employment there shall 
be transferred to the State Primary School from the State Almshouses at 
Tewksbury and Bridgewater, from time to time, all such children as are 
of suitable condition of body and mind to receive instruction, and at the 
same time are likely to continue for a period of six months under the 
care of the state ; and especially such as are orphans, or have been 
abandoned by their parents, or whose parents have been convicted of 
crime, or come within any of the descriptions of persons contained in 
the General Statutes, chapter one hundred and sixty-five, section 
twenty-eight. 

Sect. o. Such transfers of children shall be made by the Board of 
State Charities, who shall have full power to make such other transfers 
of children as they may deem necessary, from the state almshouses ; 



1866.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 31 

and the power of admission and discharge shall be vested in the said 
Board of State Charities, together with the other powers now vested in 
said board in relation to state paupers in almshouses and hospitals. 

Sect. 6. It shall be the duty of the Board of State Charities, upon 
consultation with the Trustees of the State Reform School at West- 
borough, as often as once in three months, to examine into the sentences 
and the conduct of the pupils in that institution ; and when they shall 
find pupils there residing who have been committed for trivial offences, 
and do not appear to be depraved in character, or to need the restraints 
of imprisonment, the Board of State Charities shall furnish lists of such 
pupils to the Governor, who may, under his warrant, direct the removal 
of such children to the State Primary School at Monson, and such 
removal shall suspend their sentence of confinement at Westborough, 
during the good behavior of such pupils. 

Sect. 7. No child above the age of sixteen years shall be received 
or retained in the State Primary School, except by special vote of the 
Board of State Charities, on the representation of the Superintendent 
that there are urgent reasons for such admission or retention ; but it 
shall be the duty of the Superintendent, Inspectors and other officers to 
use all diligence to provide suitable places in good familif for all such 
pupils as have received an elementary education ; and any other pupils 
may be placed in good families, on condition that their education shall 
be provided for in the public schools of the town or city where they may 
reside. 

Sect. 8. Except as already limited in this act, the Board of State 
Charities and the Inspectors of the State Almshouse at Monson shall 
have and exercise all the powers, and be subject to all the duties, in 
regard to the pupils of the State Primary School, which now belong 
or may hereafter be given to them in regard to the inmates of the State 
Almshouse at Monson ; and nothing contained in this act shall affect 
any powers or privileges heretofore granted to cities or towns, or the 
overseers of the poor thereof, by acts specially relating to the state 
almshouses, and the sending of state paupers thereto. 

Sect. 9. The sum of two thousand dollars is hereby appropriated for 
the necessary changes in the buildings at Monson, which shall be 
expended under the direction of the Superintendent and Inspectors. 
The expenses of the school shall be paid from the appropriation for the 
expenses of the almshouse, and no officer now receiving a salary from 
the Commonwealth shall be entitled to any increase of salary in conse- 
quence of this act ; but such officers and employes as the Superintend- 
ent and Inspectors shall designate, shall be employed to perform services 
both in the school and in the almshouse. 

Sect. 10. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
May 3, 1866. 



32 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE STATE PRIMARY 
SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



The following Rules and Regulations are adopted for the govern- 
ment of the State Primary School established in connection with the 
State almshouse at Monson: — 

SUPERINTENDENT. 

Sect. 1. The Superintendent shall have the general charge of the 
School and enforce its rules and regulations, visiting its several depart- 
ments daily, and securing promptness and efficiency on the part of the 
officers in their respective duties. 

Sect. 2. In the appointment of teachers he shall use care to select 
persons of peculiar fitness for the management and instruction of chil- 
dren, and in all the departments of the Primary School he shall 
endeavor to employ only persons of amiable disposition and pleasing 
manners ; and shall himself set them an example by treating the pupils 
with kindness and consideration, having in view their various dispositions, 
and their capacities for moral and mental improvement. 

Sect. 3. He shall direct the Principal to assign all new pupils their 
proper places in the School, and upon the report of the Principal, shall 
from time to time make all necessary transfers and promotions. 

INSPECTORS. 

Sect. 1. The Board of Inspectors shall visit the School once each 
month, and one of them shall visit the same at least once each week. 

Sect. 2. They may make such suggestions to the Superintendent 
as they may think proper, and shall report to the Board of State 
Charities any neglect or abuse in the instruction and care of pupils. 

OFFICERS AND TEACHERS. 

Sect. 1. There shall be an Assistant-Superintendent, Chaplain, 
Physician, a Matron, Principal of the School, and as many assistant 
teachers and other officers as may be necessary ; but the same person 
may hold the offices of Superintendent, Principal and Chaplain, and the 
officers of the Primary School may also be officers of the almshouse. 



1866.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No.' 24. 33 

Sect. 2. The Assistant-Superintendent shall act as Clerk, and in 
the absence of the Superintendent shall have charge of the Primary 
School, and perform all the duties and exercise all the powers of the 
Superintendent, and no other officers shall at any time exercise such 
powers. In case of vacancy in both offices, the Inspectors shall designate 
a person as temporary Superintendent. 

Sect. 3. The Matron shall exercise towards the children maternal 
kindness and affection, and endeavor to secure their confidence and 
esteem. She shall see that their garments are kept clean and whole, 
and that her assistants perform their duties faithfully. 

Sect. 4. The Physician may suggest to the Superintendent and 
Inspectors such sanitary measures as he may consider necessary for the 
health of the pupils ; and all sick children shall be immediately reported 
to the Physician, who may place them in the hospital where they shall 
be tenderly nursed and cared for, until he orders their discharge. 

Sect. 5. The Principal shall have the special charge and responsi- 
bility of instruction in the Primary School, and shall himself teach the 
higher classes. He shall assign hew pupils their places in the several 
classes, and shall report lists of pupils for transfer and promotion by the 
Superintendent, at least every three months. His compensation shall 
be adequate, and he shall not be subject to direction by any person, 
except the Superintendent, or, in his absence, the Assistant-Superin- 
tendent, nor shall this direction extend to the details of instruction 
and discipline. He shall report in writing to the Superintendent any 
incompetence, abuse or neglect of duty of any teacher. 

Sect. 6. The assistant teachers shall be women. They shall be 
required to teach at least twenty-five hours each week. They shall be 
responsible for the proper care of their school-rooms, and for the 
thorough instruction of their pupils in the branches prescribed, and in 
good manners and behavior. They shall, when directed by the Super- 
intendent, attend the pupils at their meals, and instruct them in Sunday 
school. They shall be allowed such vacations in each year as the 
Superintendent and Inspectors may establish, but not less than four 
weeks. They shall give notice of their intention to resign at least one 
month before leaving the School, but such notice may be waived by the 
Superintendent. 

Sect. 7. The Superintendent may require the male assistant of the 
almshouse department to see the boys to their beds, and that they retire 
with proper decorum ; to see that they rise in the morning at the ring- 
ing of the bell, and attend to their washing before breakfast ; and also 
see to their clothing and bathing. He shall accompany the children to 
and from the school-rooms and dining-hall, and be present at all their 
meals, as well as take charge of the boys in their play-yard. 
5 



34 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Sect. 8. He may also require the Assistant-Matron of the alms- 
house department to see the girls to their beds at night, and attend to 
their washing and bathing, and see that cleanliness, order and propriety- 
are maintained, and that their persons, dresses and rooms are neatly 
kept. 

Sect. 9. The officers whose duties have not been specifically defined 
shall perform the customary services, and all officers shall be required 
to aid the Superintendent when called upon to do so. 

Sect. 10. Officers and teachers of the school shall be appointed at 
the monthly meeting of the Inspectors in January. For good reasons 
they may be suspended by the Superintendent, and removed with the 
consent of the Inspectors. 

PUPILS OF THE SCHOOL. 

Sect. 1. All children admitted to the Primary School shall be 
registered separately from the paupers, and shall in no way be classed 
or confounded with them. 

Sect. 2. The pupils shall be well fed and clad, and kept scrupu- 
lously clean. They shall be allowed such recreation in the yards and 
elsewhere as their health may require. 

Sect. 3. They shall be kindly treated by all officers having charge 
of them. In all cases where severe discipline may be necessary, the 
pupil, if in school hours, shall be taken to the Principal ; and at other 
times to the Superintendent, or, in his absence, to the Assistant-Superin- 
tendent. These officers respectively shall carefully examine into the 
charge against the pupil, and be convinced that such punishment is 
unavoidable before it is inflicted. Corporeal punishment shall be 
discouraged, and adopted only as a last resort. 

Sect. 4. The buildings shall be so arranged as to prevent pupils of 
the school from having intercourse with the paupers ; and they shall 
not be permitted to associate with them on any occasion ; provided, 
however, that children having mothers in the almshouse may see them 
whenever the Superintendent may think advisable. 

the placing of children in families. 

Sect. 1. Persons applying for children to be placed in families, 
according to section 7 of chapter 209 of the Acts of 1866, shall furnish 
the Superintendent with satisfactory proof of their fitness to have the 
charge and custody of a child ; and no child shall be placed in any 
family known to be intemperate. 

Sect. 2. A written agreement shall be entered into between heads 
of families receiving children and the Inspectors of the Primary School, 
providing for the education of the children in the common school, for 



1866.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 24. 35 

their kind treatment and proper training, and for sufficient food and 
clothing ; and the Inspectors may stipulate for the payment of a sum of 
money for the benefit of the children at the expiration of the period of 
the agreement ; but such agreement may be cancelled by the Inspectors 
at any time, or may be given up by the consent of both parties. 

Sect. 3. All children thus placed in families shall be subject to visi- 
tation and examination by the Superintendent and Inspectors, or by the 
Board of State Charities or their appointed agent, at all times, for the 
purpose of ascertaining their condition, of counselling with them, and of 
protecting them against abuse, or encouraging them in good conduct ; 
and all persons receiving such children shall report to the Superintendent 
and Inspectors in writing, at least once in each year the condition and 
conduct of the children, respectively, and shall also furnish writing 
materials to the children under their charge for the purpose of corres- 
ponding with the Superintendent and Inspectors, and the children shall, 
at reasonable times have liberty to write and receive letters to and 
from the above-named authorities. 

Sect. 4. On the recommendation of the Superintendent and Inspec- 
tors, children may be indentured by the Board of State Charities, but 
preference shall be given to the method of providing for children without 
indentures. 

GENERAL RULES. 

Sect. 1. Wednesday of each week shall be considered visiting day, 
and persons coming to the institution shall not be allowed to visit the 
schools on other days, except by special permission of the Superintend- 
ent. The Superintendent shall, however, admit persons at the request 
of a member of the Board of State Charities or one of the Inspectors. 

Sect. 2. There shall be such holidays during the year as the Super- 
intendent and Inspectors may consider necessary for the welfare of the 
children. Sunday shall be appropriately observed by officers and chil- 
dren. Eeligious services shall be held in the chapel in the morning, to 
be followed by a Sunday school. 

Sect. 3. The sleeping rooms of the children shall be well ventilated 
and furnished with clean and comfortable beds. The watchman shall 
visit them hourly during the night, and give immediate notice to the 
Superintendent of any disturbance or escape. 

Sect. 4. The schools shall be graded at least once in three months, 
and shall be numbered from the highest grade to the lowest. Such 
registers shall be kept in each school as the Board of State Charities 
may provide, and shall be renewed quarterly. 



36 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. '66. 

Sect. 5. These rules and regulations shall be reconsidered at least 
once a year, and may be altered or amended at any regular meeting of 
the Board of Inspectors, a majority of the board and the Superintendent 
agreeing thereto, and the Governor and Council approving the same. 

JOHN M. BREWSTER, Jr., 

Superintendent. 

GORDON M. FISK, 
GEORGE CHANDLER, 
ELEAZER PORTER, 

Inspectors. 
State Primary School, Monson, Aug. 29, 1866. 

Council Chamber, Boston, Aug, 31, 18G6. 
The above Eules and Regulations are approved in Council. 

OLIVER WARNER, Secretary. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 25. 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



THE INSPECTORS 



Stale IttajjDitse ani frimarg §bt\tu& 



M O 1ST S O N" 



OCTOBER, 1867. 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS, 
No. 4 Spring Lane. 

18 68. 



ComwomDMltf) of it$a00acl)useti0. 



INSPECTORS' REPORT 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Co%mciL 

The Inspectors of the State Almshouse and State Primary 
School at Monson herewith submit their Annual Report, for 
the financial year ending September 30, 1867. 

The system of management here does not vary essentially 
from one year to another, and aside from giving statistical facts 
there is little to be said this year in addition to what has been 
suggested or recommended in previous reports. 

The inside of the Almshouse and Primary School building 
has been painted the past season, and such repairs as seemed to 
be necessary have been made. 

A new hospital building has been erected on the hillside, 
east of the main buildings. It embraces a two-story centre 
building, thirty-two feet square, with one-story wings running 
east and west, each sixty feet in length. The centre building 
is designed for the office of the physician, hospital kitchen and 
lodging-rooms for nurses. There are two wards in the male 
department, and three in the department for females and 
children. Connected with these are small rooms for patients 
when very sick, also bath-rooms and other conveniences, which 
make the new hospital more comfortable than the two now in 
use. An appropriation of forty-five hundred dollars ($4,500) 
was made by the last legislature to build the hospital ; but that 
amount will hardly be sufficient to complete it. 

The old play-house for boys, the upper portion of which was 
used for a dormitory for straggling paupers, has been moved to 
a new position in the yard, and the second story rooms taken 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



out, so as to make a large and airy room, much pleasanter and 
more wholesome than it was before. 

Other improvements are in progress about the buildings and 
yards, to render them more convenient and attractive. 

Some improvements have been made on the farm, which has 
yielded a bountiful harvest. The estimated value of all the 
crops is 116,024.24. 

The farm, containing 176 acres, is valued at $14,778.69. 
The buildings are estimated at 199,830, and the personal 
property at $55,816.55, making the whole real and personal 
estate foot up $170,425.24. 



At the time of making our last report there were in the 

Almshouse department, . . . ■ . . . 176 

Admitted since that time, 1,068 



Total,. . ... . . 

Number transferred to Primary School, 
Number discharged, deserted and died, 
Now in the Almshouse department, 
Average number supported in the Almshouse through 
the year, 

Number in the Primary School department, October 1 
1866, . . . ... 

Number admitted since, . . . 

Total, . 



1,244 

124 

881 
239 

219 



385 
334 

719 



Number discharged, deserted and died, . . . 301 
Now remaining in the school, . . . . . 418 

Of this number 308 are boys, and 110 girls. 
Average number supported in the school through the 

year, 409J 

Cost of supporting each inmate of Almshouse and pupil 

of Primary School per week, .... . $1.90f§ 



A good degree 6f health has been .experienced in the institu- 
tion. The average number in the hospitals has been eighty- 
five. There have been sixty deaths, — twenty-two of infants 



1867.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



under one year of age. When we consider that twenty illegiti- 
mate children have been born in the institution during the 
year, it is not difficult to account for the latter mortality. A 
class of women seek the Almshouse as a lying-in hospital, and 
desert it as soon as able, leaving their infants to the " tender 
mercies " of the hospital, where, with the foundlings picked up 
and sent, in, they languish and die for want of a mother's care. 
Ninety per cent of these children perish, when forty or fifty per 
cent, of them would undoubtedly be saved could they be sent 
to a foundling hospital. What adds to this inhumanity is the 
fact that there seems to be no law by which the. mothers of 
these abandoned children may be apprehended and punished. 

Attention is called to the Physican's report, whicli gives a 
statistical account of the hospital during the past year. 

Few children are now placed out from the Almshouse, as 
nearly all admitted to this department are transferred to the 
Primary School. Those who go out are placed under Primary 
School indentures, or, when fifteen or more years of age, let 
out on a verbal agreement, and looked after by the inspectors 
or visiting agent of the board of state charities. 

The following is a list of the officers connected with the 
Almshouse and Primary School, and the salaries paid them : — 



John M. Brewster, Jr., Superintendent, . 

Joseph H. Brewster, Ass't-SupH and Clerk, . 

Joseph D. Nichols, Physician, 

Mrs. C. S. Brewster, Matron, 

Charles F. Foster, Chaplain and Principal of 

Primary School, 
Mrs. C. S. Foster, Teacher, .... 
Jane E. Brakenridge, Teacher, 
Helen E. Emerson, Teacher, 
Mary E. Bassett, Teacher, .... 

Ida Allen, Teacher, 

Frances A. Ellsworth, Teacher, 

Flora Hill, Nurse, ..... 

Sarah Ballard, Assist ant- Matron, . 

Lucyette Mason, Seamstress, 

Jennie A. Watrous, Seamstress, . 

John N. Lacey, Engineer, .... 



11,500 00 
800 00 
800 00* 
300 00 

1,000 00 

156 00 
156 00 
156 00 
156 00 
156 00 
192 00 
208 00 
192 00 
192 00 
700 00 



6 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Joseph W. Mason, Cook in inmates' department and 

charge of boys' clothing, . 
Amelia M. Gay, Assistant, . 
John McDonald, Baker, 
Edwin Doane, Farmer, . 
Charles Adams, Farmer, 
King S. Sedgwick, Watchman, 
Maria E. Sedgwick, Care of girls in play-house and 

yard, .... 

Edwin Lawrence, Care of boys in play-house and 

yard, 



INSPECTORS. 



Gordon M. Fisk, 
Eleazer Porter, 
Thomas Rice, 



. 1400 00 


192 00 


500 00 


550 00 


420 00 


. 300 00 

7 


156 00 

7 


*> 

400 00 


. 1160 00 


160 00 


160 00 



The Primary School. 

The State Primary School, kept in connection with the 
State Almshouse, has already proved the wisdom of the law by 
which it was established. It has drawn a line between State 
pupils and State paupers, placing the former higher in the 
scale of public beneficiaries than the latter, while it encourages 
their ambition and stimulates them by means of greater advan- 
tages. The children in the Primary School have fared better 
in many respects than they did under the Almshouse regime, 
and it is designed that their condition shall be still further 
improved. 

At the time of making our last report 385 pupils were attend- 
ing the school, in five divisions. Since then two divisions have 
been added, and the number of pupils has increased to 418. 
The whole number who have attended has been 642. Average 
attendance, 341. The larger portion are small, averaging 
about nine years of age. 

The school has been under the charge of Rev. Charles F. 
Foster, who, as Principal, has labored earnestly to make it all 
that could be desired. There have been some embarrassments 
in the way of its success, but on the whole the school has done 
very well. 



1867.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 7 

In a school of this class it cannot be expected that other than 
primary branches will be taught ; yet the Principal has classes 
in grammar and history, who are making commendable 
progress. Classes are so frequently broken by calls for children 
to go out into families, that the school cannot be kept at so 
high a standard as it would if the pupils remained longer. 
But the children are anxious to go, and the interruption must 
be considered a blessing to them, though an injury to the 
appearance of the school. 

Including several from the Almshouse, one hundred and 
fifty-six children have been provided with homes in families. 
This is a much larger number than have ever before gone out 
to places in a single year. Greater f>ains have been taken to 
secure good homes, and we feel confident that most of the 
children provided for in this way will do well. 

The work of fitting these children, morally and intellectually, 
to go into families, is of the utmost importance. Here they 
may be taught principles and precepts which will form the 
foundation of their characters through life ; and to that end, it 
is the intention to employ only such teachers as have a love for 
the work and realize its importance. 

The Principal of the school has also acted as Chaplain for 
the institution. His report, following that of the Physician, 
contains an account of his labors in behalf of the moral welfare 
of all inmates of the institution, and also some matters of 
interest in relation to the Primary School. 

In conclusion, we desire to call attention to the report of Dr. 
Brewster, the Superintendent, which follows our own. It 
embraces a full statement of the financial affairs of the institu- 
tion, — its resources and expenditures, ordinary and extra- 
ordinary, with such statistics in regard to the inmates as are 
essential to be known. 

GORDON M. FISK, 
ELEAZER PORTER, 
THOMAS RICE, 

Inspectors. 
State Almshouse and Primary School, 
Monson, Oct. 1, 1867. 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Inspectors of the 'State Almshouse and State Primary 
SchooL Monson. 



Gentlemen : — The undersigned would most respectfully sub- 
mit the following Annual Report giving in detail the statistical 
and financial statements of the State Almshouse and State 
Primary School, for the year ending October 1, 1867. 

No apology is needed for calling your most careful and con- 
siderate attention to this Report. The facts and figures here 
brought to your notice relative, to the institution are of great 
interest and value. 

Whole number admitted since the first opening of the 

institution, . . . ... . . . 16,016 

Whole number of deaths since the first opening of the 

institution, 888 

Whole number of children indentured, adopted and 
placed in families since the first opening of the insti- 
tution, 977 

The number in the Almshouse at the date of last report 

October 1, 1866, 176 

The number admitted since, including 30 born in the 

institution, ' . . 1,068 



Whole number supported since last report, . . 1,244 



1867.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. • 9 

Number discharged and deserted, . . . 82T 
transferred to State Primary School, . 124 
died, .54 

Kemaining in Almshouse October 1, 1867 — 

Men, 46 

Women, ....... 79 

Boys, 63 

Girls, 51 

239 

Total, . . • . . ■ . 1,244 

The number in the State Primary School at the date of 

last report, October 1, 1866, . . . . .385 
The number admitted since, . . . . . 334 



Total number during the year, .... 719 



Number discharged, 
removed, 
died, 



Kemaining in the State Pr 
1, 1867— 
Boys, . 
Girls 



Total, . 



82 

213 

6 



mary School, October 



308 
110 
418 



719 



One hundred and fifty-six children have been removed, and 
placed in families during the year from the Almshouse and 
Primary School. 

Average number supported in the Almshouse during 

the year, . . 219 

Average number supported in the Primary School 

during the year, . . 409-J 

Average number supported in the Almshouse and 
Primary School, combined, 628J 

2 



10 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Average weekly attendance of school children 
through the year, 

Average age of children admitted to the Primary 

School during the year, 8l|| yrs. 



338f| 



Number of teachers now employed in the Primary School — 

Male, 1 

Females, 6 



Total, 



Number of assistants in boys and girls play-houses and 
yards — 

Male, . . 1 

Female, .' . . . . . 1 

Total, ....... 2 

Persons admitted into the Almshouse and Primary School 
this year were born in — 



Massachusetts, 












424 


Maine, . 












6 


New Hampshire, . 
Vermont, 












10 

9 


Connecticut, 












36 


Rhode Island, 












9 


New York, . 












4T 


Other States, 












61 


Ireland, 












347 


England, 
Scotland, 












97 
35 


Germany, 
France, 












26 
6 


British Provinces, 












34 


Other countries, 












26 


Unknown, . 

• 












34 



Total, 



1,207 



1867.] 



public document—No. 25. 



11 



The ages of paupers and school children received during the 
year are as follows : — 



c 

(0 C 




g d 

a; rH 

£ "2 
"S S 
pq 


S 2 

P5 


| S 
<D Oj 

pq 




S « 

1 1 

pq 




£ a 
pq 




S 

8 ^ 

aj 03 




g § 

PQ 


8 
g o 

► a 

"S 03 

pq 




O 03 

pq 


O 

O 


H 

O 


167 


171 


106 


97 


272 


174 


107 


66 


33 


11 


3 


1,207 





Of the number received 240 came from Tewksbury State 
Almshouse ; 33 from Bridgewater State Almshouse ; and 535 
from Palmer, nearly all of whom were travelling paupers. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

I. — Assets. 
[By Valuation of D. B. Bishop, Esq., October 1, 1867.] 
Real Estate, — 
176 acres of land, viz., 25 acres of woodland, and 

151 acres of tillage, pasturage and unproductive, $14,778 69 
Buildings, . . . . . . . 99,830 00 



Personal Estate, — 

Live stock on the farm, 

Products of the farm, .... 

Carriages and agricultural implements, 

Machinery and mechanical fixtures, 

Beds and bedding in inmates' depart- 
ment, 

Other property in inmates' department, 

Personal property in Superintendent's 
department, 

Ready-made clothing, . 

Dry goods, .... 

Provisions and groceries, 

Drugs and medicines, . 

Fuel, 

Library, .... 
Total personal property, 

Total assets, 



$114,608 69 



$5,701 00 

9,839 34 

2,885 80 

5,213 10 



9,189 37 

5,105 94 

3,969 98 

5,224 28 

1,550 88 

1,818 70 

792 17 

3,814 00 

711 99 



- 55,816 55 
. $170,425 24 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON 



[Oct. 



iiua^^opria- 
te^Rckfl^ded 



II. — Receipts. 

Amount of cash received from the aim 
tion of 1867, . 

Amount of cash received from th 
appropriation of 1866, 

Amount of cash received from appropriations to meet 
a deficiency of 1866, ...... 

Amount of cash received from unexpended appro- 
priation of 1866 for the benefit of the State Pri- 
mary School established at Monson, in finishing 
the girls' play-house, . 

Amount of cash received from special appropriation 
of 1867 for erecting a new hospital, and moving 
and repairing the boys' play-house, . 



$47,722 76 

10,520 59 

4,247 61 

1,311 42 
3,846 21 



Total received from appropriations, 
Amount received from other sources, viz. : — 
From farm and farm produce, 

towns, . . . . 

all other sources, . 


.■$ 67,648 59 

102 80 
67 69 
66 64 


Total receipts, 

III. — Expenditures . 
[A.] Current Expenditures. 
First, — Salaries of Superintendent and officers, 
($2,173.69 of the above was for educational 
poses.) 
Paid for labor, 


. $67,885 72 

. $10,143 03 
pur- 

. f 132 34 



Total for salaries, wages and labor, 

Second, — Provisions and Supplies : 
Meats of all kinds, . . ' . . $6,423 21 

Fish of all kinds, 578 49 

Fruit and vegetables, . . . . 49 39 
921 barrels of flour, average cost per 
barrel delivered at Palmer depot, 

$13.17-!!!, 12,135 89 

Grain and meal for table, ... 88 75 



,275 37 



1867.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



13 



Grain and meal for stock, . 


$1,329 70 




Tea, coffee and ch^f|^^ . 


1,014 83 




Sugar and molasMJffi, ,W • • |J 


i 2,139 69 




Milk and cheese|^R$|^^ . .1 


L2,063 61 




Salt and other groceries, . . ;! 


Rl,293 09 




All other provisions, .... 


1,959 13 




Total for provisions and supplies, . 




829,075 78 




Third, — Clothing, shoes, hats'and caps, . 


# # 


2,057 41 


Fourth, — Fuel and lights, 


. . 


4,447 72 


Fifth, — Medicines and medical supplies, 


. . 


362 54 


Sixth, — Furniture, dry goods and beddir 


»g, • 


6,535 70 


Seventh, — Transportation and travelling expenses, . 


547 67 


Eighth, — Ordinary repairs, .. 


. 


1,534 75 


Ninth, — Expenses of Inspectors, . 


. 


480 00 


Tenth, — All other expenses, . 


i c 


4,782 81 


Total current expenditures, . 


£60,099 75 



[B.] Extraordinary Expenditures, 
1st. Buildings and improvements, . . . $5,201 80 

One building, 50 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 12 
feet posts, $1,311.42 ; building bank wall m court 
yard, $44.17 ; Lumber and labor on new hospital, 
$3,353.92 ; moving and repairing an old building 
for boys' play-house, $492.29. 
2d. Extraordinary repairs, .... 1,721 70 

Painting inside Almshouse buildings, and alterations 
in and around the buildings for the Primary 
School, $1,456.56. 

Underground drains in court yard, $33.44 ; mate- 
rials for, and labor rebuilding fences around boys' 

play-yard, $231.70, 

3d. Miscellaneous expenses, .... 625 34 
(School-room furniture and fixtures, $470.36; fire 

ladders attached to main buildings, $154.98.) 



Total extraordinary expenditures. 
Total expenditures, 



,548 84 



$67,648 59 



14 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON 



IV. — Liabilities. 
Miscellaneous bills, as per vouchers, 



[Oct. 
1403 40 



Y. — Cash Account. 
Dr. — To cash drawn from State treasury, since 

October 1, 1866, . . . .$67,648 59 

received from sale of produce, . . 102 80 

received from sale of other articles, . 67 69 

received from other sources, . . 66 64 



Total, 


$67,885 72 


Cr. — By cash paid for salaries, wages and labor, . 


$10,275 37 


for provisions and supplies, 


29,075 78 


for fuel and lights, . 


4,447 72 


for clothing, dry goods, bedding 




and furniture, 


8,593 11 


for repairs and improvements, . 


8,424 81 


for all other ordinary expenses, 


6,173 02 


for all other extraordinary ex- 




penses, .... 


658 78 


into the State treasury, 


237 13 


Total, 


.$67,885 72 


VI. — Summary of the Above. 




Total receipts, 


$67,885 72 


Total expenditures, 


67,648 59 


Cash paid into the State treasury, . 


237 13 


Total liabilities, 


403 40 


Total resources,* 


. 12,931 03 


_,. «.i. . • n /» i • » • ^. 





Balance of liabilities in favor of thejnstitution, $12,527.63. 

The following statement shows the annual cost for supporting 
paupers and the Primary School children : — 



* $12,277.24 balance of the unexpended appropriation of 1867, and $653.79 of the 
unexpended special appropriation of 1867 for extraordinary expenses. 



1867.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



15 



Dr. — To cash drawn from State treasury 
October 1st, 1866, 
To cash received from all other sources, 
To decrease cash value of personal assets, . 

Total, . 



since 

. $60,099 75 
237 13 

. 2,265 52 

. $62,602 40 



Cr. — By cash paid into State treasury, $237 13 
for current expenses, 62,365 27 



$62,603 40 



Dividing the current expenses by the average number sup- 
ported through the year, gives an average annual cost of $99.23, 
and dividing this sum by 52, the total number of weeks, we 
have as the weekly cost $1.90ff . 





Estimated Produce 


of the Farm. 




5,618 


pounds pork, $898 88 


4,682 


" beef, . 








655 48 


417 


" veal, 








66 72 


5 


calves sold, 








10 50 


20 


pigs sold, 








115 90 


143 


tons hay, 








. 2,860 00 


91 


" oats, 








60 00 


5 


" corn stalks, 








60 00 


25 


" corn fodder, 








250 00 


1021 


bushels sweet corn, ". 








112 75 


2,130 


" potatoes, 








1,278 00 


1,800 


" carrots, 






, # 


810 00 


1,700 


" French turnips, 








850 00 


200 


" English turnips, 








60 00 


400 


" blood beets, . 








266 67 


136 


" sugar beets, 








90 67 


500 


" mangel-wurzel, , 








250 00 


21 


" seed beans, . 








84 00 


23 


" cucumbers, . 








17 25 


6,06.0 


pounds squash, 








121 20 


4 


quarts cucumber seed, 








2 00 


175 


bushels onions, 








146 00 


25 


" rtfetive apples, 








18 75 



16 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



2 


bushels quinces, 


2 


" peaches, 


3,200 


pounds butter, . 


53,632 


quarts milk, 


340 


cords manure, . 


127 


" wood, 


1,300 


pounds bones, . 


12 


bushels pease, . 


96 


quarts currants, 


635 


pounds pie plant, 




Lettuce, . 


2,000 heads cabbage, . 




Garden seeds, . 


70 


quarts strawberries, . 




Sundry small articles, 



$6 00 


5 00 


1,120 00 


3,217 92 


1,360 00 


889 00 


16 25 


24 00 


10 00 


50 80 


20 00 


180 00 


8 00 


17 50 


15 00 


$16,024 24 



Having presented this Report, and claiming for my efforts no 
absolute exemption from defects, relying upon Him who is 
over all for the carrying out of every plan which is calculated 
to increase the real and permanent usefulness of the institu- 
tion, with grateful acknowledgments to you, gentlemen, for 
your confidence and kindness, 



I am, 



Yery respectfully and truly, 
Your obedient servant, 



JOHN M. BREWSTER, Jr., 

Superintendent. 



Monson, October 1, 1867. 



1867.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 17 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT 



To the Inspectors of the Monson State Almshouse and State 
Primary School. 

Gentlemen : — You are herewith presented with the Four- 
teenth Annual Report of the Medical Department of this 
institution. 

The year just closed has not been marked by anything 
worthy of special notice. We have escaped the visitation of 
all those epidemics that have sometimes proved troublesome 
in former years. We have been preserved from " the pestilence 
that walketh in darkness," and from " the destruction that 
wasteth at noonday." We have had the usual amount of the 
ordinary " ills that flesh is heir to." Our number of deaths 
has been smaller than last year, and less than the average num- 
ber since the opening of the institution. When our new 
hospital, now in progress of erection, shall have been completed, 
we hope with our increased facilities for sanitary purposes to 
be able to show you a still farther reduction in our bills of 
mortality. 

Permit me, in conclusion, to express my grateful acknowl- 
edgments for your cordial sympathy and co-operation. 

J. D. NICHOLS. 

Monson, Oct. 1, 1867. 

3 



18 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



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Showing the No. of Cases of Sickness in 
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go 
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Anasarca, 

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1867.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



19 



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ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



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1867.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



21 



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22 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 3, 

Showing the No. of Births in the Monson State Almshouse during each 
Month, from Oct. 1, 1866, to Sept. 30, 1867, with a Statement of the 
Sex, whether Illegitimate, Twins, or Still-born, the Birth-place of the 
Mothers, and the whole No. since the opening of the Institution, 





"3 
1 § 


1 


m 
(0 

s 

ft 


Illegitimate. 


09 

a 

% 

H 


a 
u 
o 
up 


Birth-place of Mothers. 


MONTHS. 


02 

3 


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CD 

. S 

0) 

ft 


o 


o3 

"cs 

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"3 


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October, 


5 


2 


3 


2 


3 


5 


- 


- 


2 


1 


~ 


2 


- 


November, . 


1 


1 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


December, . 


4 


3 


1 


2 


1 


3 


- 


- 


1 


1 


~ 


1 


1 


January, 




























February, 


2 


1 


1 


- 


1 


1 . 


- 


- 


- 


2 


" 


- 


- 


March, . 


1 


- 


1 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


April, . 


4 


1 


3 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


4 


" 


- 


- 


May, . 


4 


3 


1 


2 


1 


3 


- 


1 


1 


2 


- 


- 


1 


June, . 


5 


3 


2 


2 


- 


2 


- 


1 


2 


3 


- 


- 


- 


July, . 


1 


1 
















1 








August, 


1 


1 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


September, . 


4 


3 


1 


2 

12 


1 

8 


3 

20 


2 


2 


1 

10 


3 
17 


_ 


3 


- 


Totals, . 


60 


19 


13 


2 


Whole No. since") 
the opening of >■ 
the Institution, ) 


299 


133 


166 


74 


65 


139 


10 


23 


47 


214 


10 


11 


13 



1867.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 23 



KEPORT OF CHAPLAIN AND PEINCIPAL. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen : — You can expect of me nothing more than a 
general statement of means employed during the past year for 
the improvement of the moral condition of the children and 
adults in this institution. They have not varied much from 
the methods pursued by my predecessors. The inmates have 
had opportunity to attend public worship every Sabbath morn- 
ing, and both old and young have listened attentively to the 
words addressed to them. The children have met regularly in 
the Sabbath school, under the direction of the Superintendent 
and officers of the house. There has also been a short evening 
service each day, consisting of prayer, reading of scripture and 
singing. These devotional exercises have been a source of 
pleasure to the children, as they have been frequently prolonged 
to give them opportunity to practise the sacred songs which 
they love to sing. New singing books have been introduced, 
and special attention is given to the cultivation of the voice. 

The Chaplain has held religious conversation with the sick 
who have desired it, and offered prayer at the burial of the dead. 
In one instance, on a lovely Sabbath in August, public services 
of a peculiarly interesting character were held over the remains 
of a school-boy who had been drowned. The offering of 
flowers, the melody of sweet music, and the words of Him who 
said, " I am the resurrection and the life," while they com- 
municated the influence of hallowed associations to the scene, 
divested it likewise of all that is gloomy and fearful ; and as 
the children bore their companion to the grave, we trust it was 
with some appreciation of the more glorious life, of which death 
is but the portal. 

I will, as Principal of the school, append a few statements 
with regard to its condition. There are seven departments. 



24 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. '67. 

During the past year, the chapel has been divided by a sliding 
partition, so as to accommodate two schools, and with the doors 
opened on Sunday it admits of a large audience. New desks 
and new floors are much needed for these two rooms ; in other 
respects the schools are well provided for. 

The whole number of scholars has been 642. Of these, 
some remained but a few days, others a few weeks or months, 
and only 203 who were present October 1, 1866, continued' 
through the year. The number put into families has been 
larger than usual. The necessary changes in the school, as 
well as irregularities, owing to sickness and the employment of 
scholars for working purposes, have brought down the average 
attendance to 341. 

Only the common branches of study are pursued. Classes 
have been formed in grammar and history, but they have not 
been able to make much progress on account of the frequent 
removals of the larger scholars. Three remain out of a class 
of twelve formed one year ago. 

The average age of the children is about nine. Twenty-one 
have been over fifteen years of age. Most of these, however, 
are such as have had no previous advantages for study, or such as 
have been detained here by some physical infirmity. The latter 
class is numerous and is continually increasing. People who 
take children into their homes, seek generally only the able- 
bodied. It follows that our permanent scholars must consist 
for the most part of the physically disabled. While this affects 
unfavorably the appearance and condition of the school, we 
may console ourselves with the thought that an asylum is here 
provided, and the means of mental improvement furnished for 
this unfortunate class. 

With a deep-felt sense of the magnitude of the work intrusted 
to those who instruct the minds and mould the characters, and 
in a measure affect the destiny of the hundreds of children 
who are continually passing under the shadow of this great 
charity of the Commonwealth, I respectfully submit to you 
this brief Report of the two departments in which I am engaged. 

CHARLES F. FOSTER, 

Chaplain and Principal. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 25. 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



THE INSPECTORS 



^ue 



tote ^Imsjprase attfo |j rhnarj ^rifyral 



AT 



M O 1ST S O N~ 



October, 1868 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS, 
79 Milk Street, (corner of Federal.) 

1869. 



€ontmora»Mlt!) of JUassacljttsett 



0. 



INSPECTORS' REPORT 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

With the close of another financial year, we submit our 
Eeport of the condition of the State Primary School and 
Almshouse at Monson. 

Dr. J. M. Brewster, Jr., resigned the superintendency of the 
institution on the 3d of January, and a vacancy existed till the 
first of April, during which time, Joseph H. Brewster, for 
many years Assistant-Superintendent, performed the duties of 
Superintendent very acceptably. 

Dr. Horace P. Wakefield became Superintendent on the first 
of April, and in addition to filling this position, he has filled 
that of Physician, thereby saving $500 of the salary formerly 
paid to a physician. He has had for his assistant in the hospi- 
tal, D. W. Osgood, who, as a student, has served without pay. 

Mrs. Maggie E. Brewster was appointed Matron in January, 
and filled the position till the first of September, when she 
resigned to become a teacher in the schools, and Mrs. Wake- 
field, wife of the Superintendent, was appointed her successor. 
The former did well, and the latter, thus far, makes an excel- 
lent Matron. 

The hospital building, not completed at the time of making 
our last Report, is now finished and occupied. The appropria- 
tion originally made for its construction, together with the 
removal and repairing of the boys' play-house, was $4,500. 



4 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

This sum was found insufficient, and a further sum of 
$3,851.82 was appropriated by the last legislature to complete 
the two buildings. 

The necessity for a new boiler, and repairs upon the build- 
ings, fences and grounds had become so apparent that a special 
appropriation of $5,000 was made by the legislature last 
spring, to be expended in improvements. Of this amount, 
$1,952.23 has been expended in building new fences, laying 
walks, paving water drains, grading the play yards and " slick- 
ing up " the premises. The rear yards, full of large boulders, 
unsightly holes, and dirty puddles of water in rainy weather, 
have been cleared, levelled and grassed, rendering them pleas- 
ant to look upon. The unprecedented rains of the past season 
delayed progress in this work, and floods from the mountain in 
the rear swept through the mellowed earth after having been 
graded, making numerous furrows, tearing down terraces and 
filling up drains, rendering it necessary to do some of the work 
over and over again. During one of the heavy rains in the 
early summer, the dam on the farm was partially washed 
away, thus adding another item to our list of misfortunes and 
extraordinary expenses. 

By making new water channels, and laying sags in a number 
of places, much of the inconvenience occasioned by heavy 
rains will, in the future, be avoided. It will be impossible, 
however, to complete all the improvements commenced before 
winter sets in, but the work will be resumed in the spring. 

A new boiler, to take the place of one already worn out, is 
in process of construction ; it will be of larger capacity than 
the old one, and cost $700. 

The farm has been cultivated with usual care and success. 
The increase of milk is more than four thousand gallons over 
the quantity produced last year, and the potato crop, an essen- 
tial one in the bill of fare for inmates, amounts to over twenty- 
six hundred bushels. Notwithstanding a large quantity of 
milk is raised on the farm, more has to be purchased. Enough 
hay is produced to winter a herd of cows that will fully supply 
the institution, but there is not pasture enough in summer. 
The legislature has twice been petitioned for an appropriation 
to purchase a pasture of twenty-five acres, adjoining the farm, 
and only a few rods from the barn, but we have failed to obtain 



1868.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



it. The request will be repeated at the next session, with 
the hope of better success. The reasons for this purchase are 
more fully set forth in the Superintendent's .Report. 

At the close of the last financial year there were in the Alms- 
house department, 239 

Admitted in the past year, 



Total, 

Number transferred to Primary School, 
Number discharged, deserted and died, 
Number at present in the Almshouse, 
Average number supported in the Almshouse throug' 
the year, 

Number in the Primary School October 1, 1867, . 
Admitted during the past year, .... 

Total, 

Number of pupils discharged, removed and died, 
Now members of the school, .... 

Of this number 306 are boys, and 97 girls. 
Average number supported in the school through the 

year, 

Cost per week, of supporting each inmate of Almshouse 

and pupil of Primary School, .... 
Total number of admissions to the institution since its 

opening, 



1,305 
1,544 

205 

1,202 

137 



233 



52 

418 
270 



688 

285 
403 



413f a o 



12.10-; 



17,212 



In the spring a series of epidemics followed each other in 
rapid succession, sweeping into the grave more than a score of 
little ones in a few weeks. Since then the hospital has been 
nearly empty of patients ; and, but for the adult sufferers, who 
gather in as cold weather approaches, there would be little 
need of a physician, and less of medicine. 

There have been thirty-three births during the year, of which 
twenty were illegitimate. The deaths number eighty, twenty- 
one of which occurred among the children of the Primary 
School. 

An attempt is making to lessen the number of admissions 
from a class of tramps and stragglers who travel back and 



6 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

forth from the eastern to the more western cities, making 
Palmer a point at which to gather at night or at the close of 
the week. From that place they file into the institution by the 
half dozen and dozen, seeking lodgings, or a few days' rest, 
refusing to work, and often insolent. They have seemed to 
look upon the Almshouse as a public inn, into which all who 
travel upon the highway may go and partake " without money 
and without price. " On one occasion, a man living in comfort- 
able circumstances in a neighboring town was discovered 
among a gang of these tramps, who had sought the Almshouse 
for food and lodging, expecting to depart on the morrow. For 
many years this practice has been kept up, till now it is not 
difficult to identify these impostors from the worthy and needy 
poor, and give them their choice to remunerate the Common- 
wealth by labor or journey on. 

The wants of the institution are many. We need steam for 
warming purposes, believing it to be safer, more healthful and 
more economical. We need new and better facilities for wash- 
ing, the old machinery being nearly worn out ; the buildings 
need a new coat of paint, and the furniture in the Superinten- 
dent's department should be renewed. Considerable more can 
be accomplished with the unexpended portion of the appropria- 
tion made last spring, but wo cannot put in steam-heating 
apparatus, and make all the necessary repairs, without another 
and a larger appropriation. 

The Primary School department at the present time contains 
403 pupils, 372 of whom are in daily attendance upon the 
schools, together with 27 from the Almshouse department. 
Some are too small to attend school, yet they are counted as 
belonging to this department. 

Rev. Charles F. Foster has continued as Principal of the 
school, and has been assisted by seven female teachers. They 
have labored diligently to bring the school up to the standard 
of excellence originally intended by the Board of State Chari- 
ties. In the way of this there are several obstacles. In the 
first place, the construction of the buildings is such that it is 
almost impossible to isolate the children completely from the 
adults. In the school, the dining hall, in their dormitories 
and play-yards, the children are removed from pauper inmates, 
but they meet them at the corners of. the walks, at the door- 



1868.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25.' T 

ways, in the chapel, and on various occasions. The Board of 
State Charities have made a large reduction of the adult 
inmates the past summer, by removing them to the Tewksbury 
and Bridgewater institutions. There will always be more or 
less of this class here, and more in winter than in summer ; 
but if the Primary School is to be made what it should and 
can be, the number of paupers should be kept so small that 
they can be accommodated outside of the main building, where 
they will not be in daily association with the children. 

Notwithstanding all the difficulties it has had to contend 
with, the Primary School may be considered a success. The 
children are better taught, better cared for, and better con- 
tented than they were under the old almshouse regime. A 
great many things may yet be done for their comfort and eleva- 
tion, and we only wait the pleasure of the legislature to furnish 
means for doing them. While the State is dispensing munifi- 
cent bounty to its literary institutions of higher pretensions, it 
should not forget its orphan and friendless children. 

None but those who daily labor in behalf of these little ones 
can appreciate or realize the great amount of good here accom- 
plished. The children are gathered in from the sloughs of vice 
and ignorance, and here first directed in paths of knowledge 
and virtue. They are plucked as brands from the burning, to 
be made useful and respectable members of society. In this 
grand work of salvation the State can afford to be liberal, yea, 
bountiful. 

Mr. Foster and his corps of teachers have labored earnestly 
in a good cause. The children have been encouraged, edu- 
cated and amused. The schools appear well, are under the 
best of discipline, and are making excellent progress. 

The number of children sent out to families during the year 
is one hundred and seventy-nine. Of this number, sixty-five 
have been returned for various reasons, leaving one hundred 
and fourteen in their places. Though the Primary School is 
now full of little children, it contains less than a dozen over 
twelve years of age suitable to place out. Institution life is 
unnatural, and it is better to provide children with homes in 
families, though not always as desirable as could be wished, 
than to retain them here. There will be some wrongs perpe- 
trated upon indentured children, but they are so closely looked 



8 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

after now that no abuse can be of long continuance or pass 
unnoticed. 

Most of our boys and girls, and especially the boys, are taken 
by farmers. They select the largest, that they may be of 
immediate help; and the consequence is, a large number of 
small children are left in the school. We believe some induce- 
ment not hitherto furnished should be offered to families to 
take the small children. Many excellent families in moderate 
circumstances would take these little ones if they could receive 
a small compensation. To say nothing of the benefit that 
would accrue to the children, it would be a measure of 
economy for the State. 

One member of this board, acting as Visiting Agent for the 
Board of State Charities, has had supervision of the children 
placed out for the past two years. For four months and a 
half, in the present year, the agency was suspended by that 
Board for want of means, but continued by the board of inspec- 
tors. Among some of the results of this agency may be men- 
tioned the procuring of more and better homes for children, 
less abuse, fewer neglects, a large decrease in the number of 
runaways, and a familiar acquaintance with the whereabouts, 
history, wants and circumstances of every child placed out. 

As the Primary School is the home of the children before 
they are placed out, it should be made so pleasant, so attrac- 
tive, that a boy or girl may seek it as a temporary asylum when 
out of a place or overtaken by misfortune. Here they should 
find a genial welcome, words of cheer and encouragement, and 
a hearty " God help you " when they again go forth. 

It is our desire that no officers should be employed who have 
not hearts for this good work as well as purses for the pay. 
The numerous duties of the institution require many servants 
of the Commonwealth, a list of whom, with their compensation, 
follows : — 

Horace P. Wakefield, Superintendent and Physician, $1,800 00 
Mrs. Mary B. Wakefield, Matron, .... 
Joseph H. Brewster, AssH-SupH and Clerk, . 
Charles F. Foster, Chaplain and Principal of 

Primary School, . 
Mrs. C. S. Foster, Teacher, 



300 


00 


,000 


00 


800 


00 


200 


00 



1868.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



Mrs. L, M. Montague, Teacher, 

Mrs. M. E. Brewster, Teacher, 

Mary E. Bassett, Teacher, .... 

Ida E. Allen, Teacher, 

Lucy J. Beebe, Teacher, .... 
Henrietta N. Day, Teacher, .... 
Edwin N. Montague, Charge of boys in play-house 

and yards, 

Charlotte A. St. John, Nurse, 

Susan C. Yarrington, Assist ant- Matron, 

Lizzie H. Drake, Assistant, .... 

Baldwin, Seamstress, 

Frank Johnson, Acting Engineer, . 

Joseph W. Mason, Cook in inmates' department, 

G. W. Cobb, Baker, 

Mrs. H. W. Clark, Laundress, 

W. J. Clark, Farmer, 

Orin S. Bradley, Assistant-Farmer, 
Robert Gallivan, Watchman, . 
A. 0. Hitchcock, Charge of clothing, Sfc, 
Michael Sisk, Assistant, .... 



INSPECTORS. 



Gordon M. Fisk, 
Eleazer Porter, 
Thomas Rice, 



$200 00 


200 


00 


200 


00 


200 


00 


200 


00 


200 00 


400 


00 


200 


00 


208 


00 


200 


00 


200 


00 


300 


00 


400 


00 


575 


00 


200 


00 


500 


00 


400 


00 


300 


00 


300 


00 


180 00 


$160 00 


160 00 


160 00 



Inventory of 1868. 

[By Valuation of D. B. Bishop, Esq., on the first day of October, 1868.] 

Real Estate, — 
176 acres of land, viz., 23-|- acres woodland, and 

152|- acres of tillage, pasturage and unproductive, $14,778 69 
Buildings, 99,885 00 



$114,663 69 



Personal Estate, — 

Live stock on the farm, . . , $5,644 25 

Products of the farm, .... 6,088 99 

Carriages and agricultural implements, 2,327 51 



10 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Machinery and mechanical 


fixtures, 


$4,595 30 


Beds and bedding in inmates' 


depart- 




ment, 


. 


. 


8,246 17 


Other property in inmates' 


department. 


4,402 30 


Personal property in Superintendent's 




department, 


. 


. 


3,951 23 


Ready-made clothing, . 


. 


. 


5,428 39 


Dry goods, . 


. 


. 


1,090 26 


Provisions and groceries, 


. 


. 


1,245 93 


Drugs and medicines, . 


. 


. 


536 68 


Fuel, .... 


. 


. 


. 4,877 50 


Library, . . . 


. 


. 


397 45 


Total personal propert 


y> 




f/|Q ooi qa 




Total invoice, 


. ■ .$163,495 65 



We are under obligations to the Board of State Charities for 
valuable suggestions, in regard to the Primary School and 
Almshouse. These suggestions have been carried out so far as 
they could be with the means furnished by the legislature. 

We desire to commend Dr. Wakefield for the energy with 
which he is discharging the duties of Superintendent, and the 
effort he is making for the success of the institution. His 
report as Superintendent and Physician follows our own, and 
will be found a readable and interesting document. The report 
of Rev. Mr. Foster, Principal of the School and Chaplain, is 
also appended. We desire also to testify to the industry and 
faithfulness of all the subordinate officers, in their labors for 
the welfare of inmates and pupils and the interests of the 
Commonwealth. 



GORDON M. FISK, 
ELEAZER PORTER, 
THOMAS RICE, 

Inspectors. 
State Primary School and Almshouse, ) 
Monson, Oct 1, 1868. J 



1868.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 11 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT AND PHYSICIAN. 



To the Inspectors of the Monson State Almshouse and Primary 

School. 

Gentlemen : — The season has again come when the law pro- 
vides that the Superintendent shall submit his Annual Report 
to your honorable Board. For only one-half of the period for 
which I must report have I had supervision, and for only one 
half can I be held responsible. For the last six months I must 
stand by the record, willing or unwilling. By the management 
of the institution during this time I stand ready to be judged. 

On the 20th of March, I received from His Excellency Gov- 
ernor Bullock, unsolicited, a commission of Superintendent of 
the Monson State Almshouse and Primary School. Although 
I had had some experience in institution life in different capaci- 
ties, I entered on these duties, on the first day of April, with 
but a faint idea of the cares, responsibilities and anxieties of the 
position. In order that all things should " work together for 
good " to the inmates, the officers, the institution and the Com- 
monwealth, I had learned from experience that it was necessary 
there should be some recognized head. On the question who 
that head should be, there seemed to be a difference of opinion. 
A certain class of inmates was determined to dispute to the bitter 
end my claim to this prerogative. After repeated trials, how- 
ever, in the supreme court of the Almshouse, it has been settled 
that my claim was a valid one, and at present my authority is 
recognized nemine contradicenle. 

Receipts. 
Amount of cash received from the unexpended 

appropriation of 1867, $12,277 24 

Cash received from deficiency appropriation for 

1867, 4,888 59 



12 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



Cash received from the annual appropriation of 
1868, 

Cash received from appropriation for 
erecting new hospital, . . . $646 08 

Cash received for moving and repairing 
boys' play-house, .... 6 71 



[Oct. 
,746 24 



652 79 



Cash received from appropriation to meet 
a deficiency for new hospital, . . $3,348 22 

Cash received from appropriation to meet 

a deficiency for boys' play-house, . 503 60 



3,851 82 



Cash received from special appropriation of 1868, 1,952 23 



Receipts from appropriations, . 
Receipts from other sources, . 

Total receipts, 



172,368 91 
268 89 

$72,637 80 



Expenditures. 
Salaries of officers, ($2,560.98 of which was for 

educational purposes,) $8,968 85 

Labor, 



Total for salaries and labor, 

Meats, .... 
Fish, .... 
Fruit and vegetables, 
Flour— 986 barrels, 
Grain and meal, . 
Tea and coffee, 
Sugar and molasses, 
Milk, butter and cheese, 
Salt and other groceries, 
Other provisions and supplies 
Total for provisions, 

Clothing, shoes, hats and caps 

Fuel and lights, . 

Medicines, . 

Furniture, dry goods and bedding, 



. 1,780 07 
. $10,748 92 



$6,952 09 

490 87 

25 25 

11,994 87 
1,923 44 
1,081 36 
2,140 82 
2,241 13 
1,655 57 
1,686 89 



30,192 29 

3,762 08 

5,722 14 

347 03 

6,174 67 



1868.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



13 



Transportation, 
Ordinary repairs, . 
Expenses of Inspectors, . 
All other expenses, 

Total current expenditures, 



Extraordinary Expenditures 

Belting and fixtures, 
Repairing stoves and pipes, 
Lumber and labor for fence, 
Agent for visiting children, 
Furnaces, 

Lumber and labor for boys' play-house, 
Lumber and labor for new hospital, 
Expended of special appropriation, 1868 
Extraordinary expenditures, . 



. $721 42 


. 1,519 10 


480 00 


. 4,016 28 


. $63,804 55 



$50 00 

151 20 

275 00 

601 84 

1,029 48 

510 31 

3,994 30 

1,952 23 



Total expenditures, 

Whole number in Almshouse October 1, 1867, 
Admitted during the year, .... 
Births during the year, .... 



8,564 36 

$72,368 91 

. 239 

. 1,272 

33 



Total, 



1,544 



Whole number discharged, 
Whole number deserted, 
Transferred to State Primary school, 

Deaths, 

Total discharged, 

Remaining, October 1, 1868 — 

Men, 

Women, .... 
Total adults, 

Boys, ..... 

Girls, 

Total children, 

Total adults and children, 

Total, .... 



.1,039 
. 104 

. 205 
. 59 



1,407 



33 

46 



38 

20 



79 



5! 



137 



1,544 



14 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Whole number in Primary School, October, 1867, . . 418 
Admitted during the year, (270,) viz. : 

Transferred from Monson Almshouse, . . . . 205 

Transferred from Westborough R. School, ... 10 

Returned to institution, 55 

Total, 688 

Whole number discharged, . . . . 113 
Whole number removed, .... 151 
Deaths, 21 

285 

Remaining, October 1, 1868 — 

Boys, 306 

Girls, 97 

403 

Total, 688 

The average number supported in the Almshouse for 
the year ending October 1, 1868, is . . . . 233^ 9 2 

The average number supported in the Primary School, 

is . . . . . . . . ' . . 413f J 

The average number supported in both departments, 

is . . . . . ... . . . 646f § 

Dividing the actual amount drawn from the treasury of the 
Commonwealth, $63,804.55, by the average number of inmates, 
646||, gives an annual cost of $98.68, and a weekly cost of 
$1.90, for each inmate. 

Dividing the current expenses, consisting of the amount 
drawn from the treasury, $63,804.55, and the depreciation of 
personal assets, $6,984.59,= $70,789.14, gives the annual cost 
of $109.46, and a weekly cost of $2.10f|- . 

To this may be added the sum of five hundred dollars, the 
amount raised on the farm, consumed and not inventoried, 
consisting of corn, potatoes, peas, beans, tomatoes, strawberries, 
currants, melons, etc., etc. This would add seventy-seven cents 
to the annual cost, and one cent and a half to the weekly cost, 
of each inmate. 

Many articles of personal property have been materially 
reduced in the appraisal from last year, and there is a falling 



1868.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 15 

off of more than four thousand dollars in the four articles of 
vegetables, hay, wood and manure. 

The first movement I made was to move a building standing 
in the rear yard near the office, which was used as a swill and 
ash-house, and around which had accumulated large quantities 
of cinders and ashes. These soon followed the building, and 
although I have made strenuous exertions to have them used, 
we have some twenty or thirty tons on hand at the present 
time. The hose-house and the dead-house which also graced 
our yard were disposed of; the one was dispensed with and 
the hose transferred to a more convenient location, while the 
other was moved to a less conspicuous position. 

Having disposed of the buildings I put in a main with side 
drains in the lower section of the rear yard for the purpose of 
transforming a pond vocal with the music of spring's earliest 
pipers into solid land. 

I learned from the engineer that one boiler had been in use 
every day for more than two years, that the other had not been 
fired up for the same time, and that in his opinion it was not 
safe so to do. I stated the case to your board, and also to some 
members of the Board of State Charities, and found it to be 
the opinion of all that common prudence required that the 
cooking of the food for five or six hundred inmates should not 
be dependent on a single boiler. A committee of the legisla- 
ture soon after visited the institution and reported a Resolve, 
which passed the legislature, appropriating five thousand dollars 
for procuring a new boiler and making repairs on the fences 
and grounds of the institution. It was agreed by all that this 
was only a drop in the bucket, a tithe only of what was needed 
to meet the wants of the institution, but it was near the heel 
of the session, and perhaps the legislature thought it the part 
of wisdom to ascertain whether the new superintendent could 
economically and judiciously expend the sum of five thousand 
dollars, — whether he was faithful in a little before he was 
intrusted with larger sums. 

As soon as the legislature rose, under the direction of your 
board I made a contract with Roche Brothers, of Springfield, 
to make us a new boiler in exchange for the old one, for the 
sum of seven hundred dollars. There has been some delay, 



16 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

but I hope to have the same set before cold weather, for a sum 
less than one thousand dollars. 

When I came here the hospital grounds were unenclosed, 
and only the boys' yard and the women's were enclosed with a 
tight fence. The balance of fence was an open fence in a 
dilapidated condition, with the rails on the inside, which served 
as a ladder, inviting all who desired to scale the fence and go 
when and wherever they pleased. Desertions were common, 
for the inmates preferred more varied scenes to the monotony 
of almshouse life. Now all the yards are enclosed with a tight 
fence and also the grounds around the hospital, and escapes 
are a greater rarity than they were a few months ago. 

Immediately after the appropriation for grading the yards 
had been made at the last session of the legislature I directed 
my attention to this work. The boys' yard, the girls' yard, and 
the upper section of the rear yard were rough in the extreme. 
They were covered witli stones, stumps and shrub-oaks. Hun- 
dreds of tons of stones have been dug, blasted and removed. 
These grounds have been cleared for both the scythe and the 
plough, are now graded and sown, and are only waiting for the 
springing of the grass to make them handsome lawns. 

One of the greatest annoyances we have to contend with is 
the large amount of surface-water that comes pouring upon us 
at certain times, in torrents, from the height in rear of our 
buildings. In grading these yards I have been compelled to 
make stone gutters, at great expense, to carry off the surface- 
water. Some hundred feet of these have been laid in order to 
preserve these yards from being torn up in every heavy shower. 

Across the rear yard direct from the dining-room to the boys' 
and girls' play-houses, I have made a new concrete walk, also 
one to the hospital, at an expense of over two hundred dollars. 

The wall under the carpenter's shop, which was tottering to 
its fall, has been substantially rebuilt, and what was once the 
blacksmith shop has been converted to a receptacle for coal for 
the engineer's department. A drain has been laid within the 
walls of the hospital cellar, and also to the furnace, in order that 
we might have locomotion other than by water, and that the fire 
of the furnace might not be extinguished, since it was con- 
structed to run by fire instead of by water. 

The dam, which gave way soon after I came, in the rainy 



1868.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 17 

season, has also been repaired. Hundreds of loads of gravel 
were carried out in less than half an hour. The gate of the 
flume was some twenty feet up stream from the spiling, and 
the pressure of the water on the bottom of the flume below the 
gate and above the spiling tore up the bottom of the flume, 
and the water and dam went out together. The gate and the 
spiling are now in the same line, and I trust the water is surely 
dammed. I have rolled a stone over the mouth of those wells 
in the rear yard, which, more ancient in appearance than those 
of the patriarch Jacob, formerly supplied with sparkling water 
the Irish maidens of this institution, but which had long since 
failed, because " there was nothing to draw with," so that 
" the places that once knew them shall know them no more 
forever." 

The larger scholars have been so classified that one division 
can be engaged in their studies one part of the day while the 
other division is employed in labor. In the other part of the 
day the converse obtains. This, in the opinion of Mr. Foster, 
the Principal of the school, is an advantage to the scholar, 
while I know it is a benefit to the child as a kind of recreation, 
an advantage from the knowledge obtained of labor, by which 
a livelihood must be obtained by this class of persons, as well 
as the pecuniary advantage resulting to the institution and the 
Commonwealth. 

I have taken away the fence in front of the main building 
and school-rooms, thereby making the front aspect much less 
like a prison or house of correction. In the early part of the 
season I literally eradicated the bushes from about five acres of 
our pasture, and ploughed and planted with potatoes two acres 
more. It is necessary to follow up this practice vigorously for 
a few years, for unless you eradicate the bushes, the bushes will 
eradicate the feed. There is land enough belonging to the 
farm, if cleared from bushes, to afford a supply of pasturage, 
but the amount of arable land, suitable for the cultivation of 
corn, potatoes and vegetables is altogether too limited. 

The fence to the yard used by the children afflicted with 
scabies I have taken away, thereby enlarging the yard in rear 
of the buildings. I have removed this class, and those afflicted 
with sore eyes, to the hospital, thereby vacating the upper story 
of what was once the men's hospital. This is now occupied as 
3 



18 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

a sleeping-room by the men, while the beds are transferred 
from the lower floor, which is now only used as a place of resort 
for the daytime. I procured a new belt for the corn-mill, a 
short time since, at an expense of fifty dollars, and now the 
main belt, which has been in use since the machinery was put 
in motion, is so used up, that it will be unsafe to grind another 
grist till a new one is procured. This will cost over one hun- 
dred dollars, but it is one of the necessaries — indispensable, 
and further postponement cannot be had. I have expended 
the sum of $226.74, besides $116.72, the sum realized from 
the sale of the old stock, in plumbing. The water pipes in 
many places were so out of repair, that by leakage the wood- 
work had become rotten and the partitions crumbling away, so 
that it was necessary to insert new wood, on which to fasten 
the pipes. Most of the water-closets and a large part of the 
pipes have had a general overhauling, and what has been 
repaired has been done thoroughly. 

When I came here I found that thirty gallons of milk per 
day was purchased and used, besides what was produced on the 
farm. I am of the opinion that the farm should raise all the 
milk used in the institution. I think the farm will cut hay 
sufficient for forty cows, besides keeping teams enough to do the 
work of the establishment. By keeping thirty cows constantly 
in milk, which may be done with a herd of forty cows, a suffi- 
cient supply of milk can be obtained. 

After consultation with your board, it was deemed inexpe- 
dient to make the attempt this year. In May, we had all our 
cows in milk, which gave us an ample supply, but I found I 
could not obtain it in winter unless I engaged it for the year. 
I contracted with John M. Converse, for twenty gallons per 
day for a year, at twenty cents per gallon, delivered. While 
in full feed, with a supply from our own cows, I sent the milk 
I purchased to a cheese factory, till our own supply failed, and 
have received ten hundred and thirty-four pounds of cheese for 
our own consumption. 

From the special appropriation of $5,000, made for the pur- 
chase of a new boiler and repairs, there has been expended the 
sum of $1,952.23. Other expenditures have been made, are 
now being made and not liquidated, and the boiler is under 
contract. The balance of the appropriation will be used for 



1868.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 19 

repairs the most urgent, to determine which is difficult, when 
so many and so varied are pressing to be made. 

I propose to make a drive-way to the front door, so that 
visitors and persons on business may gain an entrance to the 
institution without being compelled to gain first impressions 
of the institution, from seeing it in its worst aspect. 

When " the harvest is past," and the fruits of our toil have 
been gathered into our barns, I propose to try the experiment, 
for the winter at least, of learning our girls and some of our 
boys, that class especially which by reason of some physical 
disability remain with us from year to year and are likely so 
to do, the use of the needle. We are short of inmate help in 
all our departments of labor, and although the experiment may 
not be remunerative, pecuniarily, still I think it may be ser- 
viceable to the boys and girls, and eventually may be a saving 
in one item of labor. In weeding and the care of our garden 
and field crops, in picking stones, gathering potatoes, vegetables, 
apples, &c, the boys have been serviceable. For the winter 
months, when this cannot be the case, I propose to employ 
them at some in-door work, so far as is practicable. 

The medical department of the institution has also been 
under my supervision since the 1st of April last. Dr. J. D. 
Nichols, who had charge of this department for over nine years, 
left the next day after my arrival. Epidemics of rubeola, 
pertussis, parotitis, varicella, and cerebro-spinal meningitis, 
were prevailing in the institution ; and probably at no time 
since the institution was opened were so many children sick 
and so great mortality among the sick, as during the months 
of March and April. Several cases passed safely through one 
epidemic, some through two, but succumbed when attacked by 
the third. Had a single epidemic prevailed at a time, the 
mortality would have been much less. Seven had died within 
four days, prior to my arrival. All the hospital wards were 
overflowing, while many other rooms for the time being were 
devoted to the comfort of the sick. For about three weeks I 
had the whole charge of this department, till I was relieved by 
D. W. Osgood, a young gentleman who had spent three years 
in the study of medicine, but had not taken his medical degree, 
who has since rendered me valuable service and to whom I am 
under great obligations for his watchful care and unremitted 



20 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



efforts to do all in his power to relieve me from labor and dis- 
charge all his duty to the sick to whom he ministered. 

After these epidemics had subsided, and I had had time to 
take observations, I determined to make an onslaught on 
scabies, which for a long time had been the scourge and pest of 
the institution. For a few weeks I made this a specialty, but 
by following it with patience and perseverance, with soap and 
sulphur, the institution is free from any developed case, and so 
far as I can see, must look to some foreign source for the 
propagation of a new crop. 

Aside from the aforementioned diseases, there is probably 
about the same amount of sickness and death that is constantly 
occurring in the institution. The debilitated old, and the 
feeble young, here meet the king of terrors. The vicious not 
living out half their days by reason of their excessive indul- 
gences, and the innocent " the iniquities of whose fathers are 
visited upon them to the third and fourth generations," here 
pay the debt of nature. 

The whole number of births for the year is thirty-three, 
(33.) Of these, twenty were illegitimate and thirteen legiti- 
mate. Males, 16 ; females, 17. Six mothers were natives of 
Massachusetts, six of the other States, and twenty-one were 
foreigners. Four fathers were natives of Massachusetts, twelve of 
other States, and seventeen were foreigners. Whole number 
of births since the opening of the institution, is 332 ; 149 
males and 183 females. 

The whole number of deaths during the year is 80 ; males, 
53 ; females, 27. Of these, twenty-one belonged to the Primary 
School — sixteen males and five females. 



Under 1 year old, 






. 




. 15 


From 1 to 5, 






. 




23 


5 to 10, . 






, 




14 


10 to 20, . 






. , 




6 


20 to 30, . 






• • 




. 4 


30 to 40, . 






. , 




6 


40 to 50, . 






, . 




1 


50 to 60, . 






. 




3 


60 to 70, . 






, . 




5 


70 to 80, . 






• 




. 3 

—80 



1868.] public document—No. 25. 21 

The whole number of deaths since the opening of the insti- 
tution is 968 ; 499 males and 469 females. 

The whole number of admissions to the hospital during the 
year is 1,027 ; the average number in the hospital during the 
last six months is 86. 

Some of the inmates of the institution have been retained 
for a longer or shorter time, because their services were 
valuable. The Board of State Charities objected to this policy 
being continued, and I have discharged some efficient workers, 
who have been here for many years. This very much reduces 
the labor performed by the inmates, and makes it necessary to 
secure more hired labor. I find it very difficult to secure good, 
efficient helpers. It is much easier to hire teachers and officers 
than washers and scrubbers. Although many of the inmates 
are shiftless and indolent, still I am in duty bound to bear 
testimony to the alacrity and efficiency of others, who perform 
all their duties in a manner commendable and worthy of imita- 
tion and praise. 

I would call your attention to the large number of transient 
persons sent here from the town of Palmer. It would seem 
that there was a telegraphic communication along the line from 
Boston to Albany, New York, Hartford and New Haven, via 
Palmer, that every loafer and vagrant on the line could be pro- 
vided at the State's expense with lodgings in the Monson Alms- 
house. They come at all times in the evening, and at all times 
at night, after the inmates have retired and the premises are 
closed. To this class, since your board passed the vote leaving 
it at my discretion whether to admit inmates or not after the 
arrival of the evening train of cars, I have given the choice of 
going on or remaining till the agent of the Board of State 
Charities can look into the case and ascertain whether it 
be not better for the common weal that they be provided with 
lodgings for more than a night with our friend Capt. Good- 
speed, in Bridgewater. Most of these vagabonds seem to have 
a realizing sense of the magnanimity of the offer, and prefer to 
jog on and pitch their " tent a day's march nearer home," than 
to tarry even for a night, while the hungry and unfortunate who 
are willing to pay an equivalent in labor for the pittance 
bestowed, having so done, on the morrow, go on their way rejoic- 
ing. It would seem that Palmer, like every other town in the 



22 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Commonwealth, should provide for its own vagabonds in a 
lock-up, or otherwise, instead of sending them out of town to 
be provided for at the expense of the State. Should she make 
an example of a few of these, the news would go with a velocity 
compared with which the telegraph would be a " slow coach," 
and this tide of travel would soon flow in a new channel. 

Thus much for what I have done and propose to do ; now, 
for what I would do, had I the means. 

The institution needs a piece of land in rear of her buildings, 
containing about twenty-five acres, for the following reasons : — 

1. The water on which we rely for the extinguishment of 
fire, comes from this lot of land, the reservoir being located on 
the same. This reservoir is subject to the incumbrance of 
maintaining a supply of water for the cattle at all seasons. 
The State paid between one and two hundred dollars for the 
privilege of maintaining this reservoir, but she has no right to 
enlarge it without the consent of the owner of the land. For 
the greater part of the year, the supply of water is ample ; 
but when there is a drought, we must furnish water for the 
pasture, which sometimes has taken the whole supply. The 
State has been at the expense of. constructing a reservoir and 
laying pipes to supply the institution, and she should have the 
control of the same. 

2. The land lies upon the side of the hill, above our 
premises, from which, and the mountain in the rear, is poured 
all the surface water falling thereon upon our yards, and which 
we cannot divert unless we own the land. The season has 
been a wet one, and while we have been grading our yards we 
have been deluged every few days, so that the expense of 
guarding against this inundation has been an item of no small 
amount. This could in a measure be avoided, if we owned the 
land, by turning the water into the highway. 

3. It lies within a few rods of our barns and is much more 
convenient of access than a great part of our tillage land. 
The expense of hauling manure on this would be far less than 
it is where we now cultivate. We are now cultivating a field 
of six acres on our farm which can be reached across this land 
in one-fourth the distance we are compelled to travel to reach 
it now. The saving in team labor would be a large item. 

4. We need the land for tillage ; almost every acre of the 



1868.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 23 

farm near the barns, and suitable for tillage, is now under the 
plough, and some of them have been since the institution was 
opened. These need rest, or should be turned for a few years 
from the plough to the scythe. Most of our grass land is so 
wet and springy, that it can better be kept up by top-dressing, 
than by ploughing. The whole of this piece of land is suitable 
for tillage and is adjacent to our barns. If the fields now 
under the plough were stocked to grass as they should be 
another spring, I know not where we could find sufficient 
arable land on which to raise our crops of corn, potatoes 
and vegetables, unless at so great a distance from our barns, 
and on such steep declivities, that the labor would exceed the 
profits. By the purchase of this a valuable accession will be 
made to our arable land, and mowing fields more remote could 
be converted into pasturage, which is the great desideratum of 
our farm. So important that the State should be able to secure 
this land I deemed it, for the reasons above assigned, that I 
have obtained a bond for a deed of the owner, Eli N. Fay. 
Under the circumstances, the State cannot afford to lose this 
opportunity of securing control of the water and land so 
essential to our convenience and profit. I hope your board will 
not fail to urge on the governor and council, and the legisla- 
ture also, the urgent necessity of securing it. 

Another subject I would bring to your attention is that of 
heating these buildings by steam. I believe that most of the 
institutions of the State are so heated. Of its health, its com- 
fort, its convenience, its economy and its safety, I have no 
doubt. We have a series of large wooden buildings, perfect 
tinder boxes for the least spark, and from forty to fifty fires. 
These buildings are filled by from five to six hundred giddy, 
thoughtless children, and careless, improvident adults. To 
every one who knows how great is the exposure, how great the 
carelessness with fire, matches, shavings, straw, and combusti- 
bles of every kind combined, it seems a wonder that Providence 
has so kindly watched over and preserved us from the devour- 
ing element. In examining, for winter's use, the stoves, fun- 
nel, &c, I found everything so exposed to fire, that it seemed 
it was rather the hand of a merciful Father that has preserved 
the institution than the prudent care of a provident State. 

Each member of the committees, which visited us the last 



24 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

session, admitted that it should be done ; some supposed, till 
they came, that it was done, and it was only the advanced 
stage of the session that prevented the subject being brought 
to the attention of each branch of the legislature. A direct 
appeal should be made to these bodies the coming session. 

Another subject to which I would call your attention, is the 
importance of procuring a new wash-room, and a new washing 
machine. Whatever the mammoth Machine was once, it has 
now ceased to be serviceable. 

,c 'Tis a monster of so hideous niein, 
That to be hated needs to be seen." 

Why it does not fall is a mystery. Its room is better than its 
service. We have steam-power, and as scarce as manual labor 
is here, it should perform this service. The wringer has to be 
worked by a four-man power, which might far better be done 
by steam-power, with a proper machine. The saving of wear 
and tear, in such an establishment, between a good and poor 
machine, is an item not small. The location of the wash-room, 
over the boiler and engine-room, from which water is constantly 
dripping on the belting and machinery, is decidedly objection- 
able, and should be moved to the ground floor. 

I would also put you in remembrance of the suggestions 
made by the Board of State Charities. They say, " A wash- 
room might be provided with so many seats that each child 
should have a particular place, with a towel and comb at- 
tached." 

" Every child should have an extra suit of clothing for Sun- 
day and holidays. This need involve no additional expense, 
except at the outset, since the best suit can afterwards replace 
the worn-out one. A closet, with partitions, should be fur- 
nished, so that each child may fold up and lay away the articles 
of his suit." 

These suggestions meet my most hearty concurrence, and I 
only wait for the funds to enable me to carry the same into 
effect. 

I would urge on your board the pressing necessity of repairs, 
in general. Eave troughs must be repaired, floors must be 
relaid, plastering renewed, buildings repaired, and a wood-shed 
erected. You, gentlemen, are sufficiently familiar with what 



1868.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 25 

is needed in such an establishment to make work easy and 
home comfortable, that I trust you will see that funds be forth- 
coming thus to do. 

My best efforts, and my highest energies, have been directed 
toward the improvement of the institution committed to my 
supervision. I trust that something has been done in this 
direction, and when we realize the wide field of labor, let us 
hope that much more may be done by persevering efforts. 

To the children and inmates who have cheerfully submitted 
to what at times might seem rigid discipline I am grateful ; to 
the officers who have readily seconded my efforts, and endeav- 
ored to make my administration a success, I am under obliga- 
tions, while to your board I am indebted for co-operation, per- 
sonal kindness, and courteous bearing towards me and mine. 

Commending all our interests to Him who " watcheth the fall 
of a sparrow," and superintends all the affairs of the universe, 
who tunes " the harp of thousand strings," and ministers to all 
our infirmities, I subscribe myself, 

Very truly, yours, 

HORACE P. WAKEFIELD, 

Superintendent and Physician. 

State Primary School, 
Monson, Oct. 1, 1868. 

4= 



26 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Statement No. 1. 

Nativity of Inmates received during the year ending September 30, 

1868. 



Massachusetts, .... 381 


Connecticut, 


. 41 


Ireland, . 






. 368 


Foreign countries, . 


27 


England, . 






124 


Rhode Island, . 


. 27 


New York, 






80 


New Hampshire, 


19 


Other States, . 






60 


Maine, .... 


. 11 


British Provinces, 






57 


Vermont, . . . . 


. 10 


Scotland, . 






37 


France, . 


7 


Germany, 






37 







Unknown, 






29 




1,315 



Of the number received 167 came from Tewksbury State 
Almshouse, 3 from Bridgewater State Almshouse, 10 from 
Westborough Reform School, and 695 from Palmer, nearly all 
of whom were travelling paupers. 



Statement No. 2. 
Products of the Farm. 



English hay, . 


961 tons. 


Turnips, English, . 


50 bush. 


2d crop, 


171 " 


Mangel wurzel, 


. 300 " 


Corn fodder, . 


3 " 


Peas in pods, 


17 " 


green, . 


31 " 


Beans, . 


20 " 


sweet ears, 


106 bush. 


Onions, . 


200 " 


pop, . 


15 " 


Apples, common, . 


. 125 " 


Potatoes, 


2,672 " 


winter, 


15 bbls. 


Squash, summer, . 


1 ton. 


Strawberries, . 


. 270 box's. 


winter, 


5J tons. 


Currants, 


3 bush. 


Cucumbers, . 


100 bush. 


Quinces, 


li " 


Pie plant, 


955 lbs. 


Pigs, . . . 


13 


Tomatoes, 


29 bush. 


Calves, . 


11 


Cabbages, 


. 3,050 h'ds. 


Veal, . 


. 613 lbs. 


Melons, . 


. 3,700 lbs. 


Beef, . 


. 5,757 " 


Beets, . 


227 bush. 


Pork, . . ■ . 


7,641 « 


Parsnips, 


25 " 


Wood, . 


15 cords. 


Carrots, 


292 " 


Lumber, 


5,000 feet. 


Turnips, French, . 


420 " 


Milk, . 


17,844 gals. 



1868.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



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[Oct. 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



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32 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 



REPORT OF CHAPLAIN AND PRINCIPAL. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School, Monson. 

Gentlemen : — I hereby submit to you the Report of what is 
strictly the educational department of the institution, including 
under this head all means employed for the moral and intel- 
lectual training of the children connected with the State Prim- 
ary School and the State Almshouse. 

To an outside observer, there may appear to have been but 
little change in the condition of the school since the last annual 
Report. But any one familiar with the inside working of the 
establishment, will perceive evidences of a departure from the 
beaten course of former years under the almshouse regime, 
and of an advance in the line of a more effective system of 
education. Several circumstances have favored this result. 
Among these may be mentioned : — 

1. Greater permanency of teachers. All who are at present 
employed in the schools, have held their positions at least one 
year, and three of them, Mrs. Brewster, Mrs. Montague and 
Mrs. Foster, have had much longer experience in this particu- 
lar department. It is desirable that the changes should not be 
frequent, since it takes even a competent teacher considerable 
time to become accustomed to the ways of the establishment. 

2. Increased regularity of attendance, especially during the 
last half of the year. Special pains were taken on the part of 
the present Superintendent in entering upon his duties, to 
improve the physical condition of the children ; the result of 
which was so far satisfactory, that since the purgation to which 
they were then subjected, comparatively few of the scholars 
have been obliged to be isolated, and hence to be absent from 
the exercises of the school-room and chapel. Since June, the 
number in attendance has varied but little from the number of 
names on the register. The improvement in this particular is 
very marked. 



1868.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 33 

Another occasion of increased regularity of attendance is the 
introduction of a system of classification, by which those chil- 
dren that work a part of the day, can always be present at the 
recitations of their classes. Formerly, boys and girls were 
taken out of school indiscriminately, for a few hours or days at 
a time, to the serious detriment of their studies. On the first 
of May, of the present year, the schools were graded as follows : 
Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 became boys' schools— No. 2 a girls' 
school — and No. 7 a mixed school. Nos. 1 and 2 contain all 
the larger scholars, and are subdivided, so that one-half of each 
can be employed out of school during the forenoon, and the 
other half during the afternoon. The result is, that three or 
four times the amount of labor has been performed by the 
children the past season, without any interruption of the school. 

3. The more complete separation of the almshouse and the 
school. The number of adults has been greatly reduced, and 
several of the older members of the school whose habits were 
such as to prevent them from receiving much benefit from the 
regular school exercises, as well as from exerting any good 
influence upon the other children, have been discharged from 
the books, that they might go to their own place. Some of 
these have been retained to work in the almshouse, while 
others have been sent to Bridgewater. 

Affairs are still somewhat mixed in the case of the younger 
inmates. The names of children three years old are entered 
upon the State Primary School record, but they are not actual 
scholars until they are five years old. Consequently, there are 
several of this class, who sustain a kind of relation to both 
branches of the establishment, being regarded as out of school 
with reference to the monthly register of attendance, but in 
school with reference to the office books. The difficulty is 
made apparent in the following table, as well as the fact that a 
certain number not yet transferred from the almshouse, are 
reckoned as scholars. 

Number belonging to State Primary School, Sept. 

30, 1868, . 403 

too young to attend school, . 14 

sick, or otherwise unable to attend^ , 17—31 

372 



[Oct. 


'68. 


• 


27 


• 


399 


1 




7 





34 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 

Number attending school from almshouse, . 

actually attending school, Sept. 30, 1868, 

Number of teachers employed at present, — 

Male, 

Females, 

Total, 8 

The whole number of scholars during the year has been 
676, of which 474 have been boys, and 202 girls. Their 
average age has been about 9. 

I wish to refer again to the fact alluded J;o in my last Report, 
that in the selection of children to be placed in families, the 
tendency is, of course, to take the best, leaving the most unde- 
sirable portion as permanent inmates. Many of them are 
physically disabled, others are mentally weak, while a large 
number are too young to be of much service. If special pains 
could be taken to find homes for these, by offering a compensa- 
tion to families that would take care of them, until they are 
able to pay their own way, such a plan would both relieve the 
State, and benefit the children. Boys who are fourteen or 
fifteen years old, ought not to be obliged to remain with us 
until they are of age, simply because they are crippled or 
deformed, if they can by any means be made useful elsewhere. 

My labors as Chaplain have consisted as heretofore in preach- 
ing on the Sabbath, and attending an evening service each day. 
These exercises have been made more interesting by the addi- 
tion to our chapel furniture, of a fine-toned cabinet organ, 
procured in part by the efforts of the children, at their exhibi- 
tions during the winter. 

Relying upon your co-operation, and the blessing of God, I 
am encouraged to hope that the future will develop more 
marked results of labor already bestowed upon this department. 

Respectfully submitted. 

CHARLES F. FOSTER, 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT...... No. 25. 



SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



THE INSPECTORS 



State ^ksjjoM sift |p rinwg Stjjool 



m o isr s o ]sr 

97U , 



October, 1869. 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTEE, STATE PRINTERS, 
79 Milk Street (Corner of Federal). 

18 7 0. 



Olommcmtoealtl) of itlassacljusette. 



INSPECTORS' REPORT 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Council. 

A Report of the condition of the State Almshouse and Pri- 
mary School at Monson, for the year ending September 30th, 
1869, is herewith submitted. 

A public institution, long established, becomes as regular in 
its yearly round of duties as the succeeding seasons, furnishing 
little that is new or interesting aside from its financial and in- 
mate statistics. 

A hopeful feature of the Almshouse department has been a 
decrease in the number of admissions, and a falling off in the 
average number supported through the year. At the rate of 
decrease which has been going on for several years, it will not 
be long before this Almshouse can be discontinued, and the few 
paupers received here be immediately transferred to the other 
almshouses. This would sooner be brought about if towns 
were required to provide temporary assistance for the needy. 
It is not un frequently the case, that the expense of sending a 
pauper from a distant town is sufficient to provide for his im- 
mediate necessities and keep him out of the almshouse. Once 
in the institution, he may linger here for months, at a cost of 
many dollars to the Commonwealth. As a matter of economy 
to the State, would it not be better to reimburse towns for tem- 
porary assistance ? 

Of an appropriation of $5,000 made by the legislature of 
1868, for special repairs and improvements, there was left at 



4 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

the close of that year $3,047.77, which has been expended the 
past year in finishing the improvements then commenced. 
New walks have been laid, new sewers and drains put in, ter- 
races built, and the inner court macadamized. Repairs have 
also been made upon the buildings, and all of them have re- 
ceived a new coat of paint. 

Another appropriation of $4,500, was made by the legislature 
last spring for the building of a wash-room and the making of 
general repairs. It has not been convenient to use any of this 
appropriation, but the necessity for it is not lessened, and in the 
coming year it will be expended for the purposes mentioned. 

The Inspectors petitioned the last legislature for an appro- 
priation sufficient to put in steam for warming purposes, and 
to purchase a pasture adjoining the farm. The petition was 
not granted, and the reasons for petitioning again are as strong 
now as ever. The land was rented the past summer and used 
to advantage in the pasturing of cows. 

The productions of the farm have been abundant. Hay and 
millet to the amount of 126 tons have been stored in the barns, 
and 17,345J gallons of milk have been produced, and for sev- 
eral months it has not been necessary to purchase any for the 
institution. 

At the time of making our last annual report the number of 

inmates in the Almshouse was, .... 137 
Admitted and born during the year, .... 756 

Total, 893 

Number transferred to Primary School, . . . 106 

Discharged, deserted and died, 676 

Number remaining in the Almshouse, . . . Ill 

Average number supported through the year, . . 139|- 

Number of pupils in the Primary School Oct. 1, 1868, 403 
Admitted during the past year, 193 

Number placed out in families, discharged, deserted 

and died, 309 

Now in the school, 287 



1869.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. -^ 

Number of boys, . . . .... 225 

Number of girls j ......... 62 

Average number supported in the school during the 

year, 360^ 

Total number supported in the Almshouse and Pri- 
mary School, . 500 

Decrease from the number supported last year, . . 147 

Expense of each inmate of Almshouse and Primary 
School, per week, basing the estimate on the money 
drawn from the treasury, for current expenses, . $1 75 

Total number of admissions to the institution since its 

opening, 17,938 

Seventy-seven children from the Almshouse at Tewksbury, 
seventeen from the Almshouse at Bridge water, and ten from 
the Reform School at Westborough, have been admitted to the 
Primary School in the past year. 

The School department has prospered better than could be 
expected, considering the constant coming and going of pupils. 
It has continued under the charge of Rev. Chas. F. Foster, its 
principal, assisted by seven female teachers. The Kinder-garten 
system has been introduced into two of the schools with very 
good results. 

The practice of occupying the older children for half a day 
with some kind of useful employment has operated well, and in 
consequence one of the schools has been discontinued. 

The number of children actually attending school at the 
present time is 285, of whom 226 are boys and 59 girls. The 
average age of pupils has been 9 years, and the average days 
of attendance for each has been 130. 

Placing children in families has continued 'to be a prominent 
feature here. The number provided with homes the past year 
is 223, of whom 48 were returned for various reasons. There 
have been more calls for children than could be supplied, for 
the reason that most of our children are too small to be of im- 
mediate service. Those who have been out for some time not 
unfrequently return, like children coming home to stay till 
other places can be found. 

A great deal of care is necessary in guarding against unsuit- 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

able places, and suiting children to families. Those who apply 
usually desire children more perfect than one could expect to 
find in the best families, forgetting that in most cases our chil- 
dren have been bereft of parents, suffered neglect, and been 
deprived of such advantages as children in more prosperous 
circumstances enjoy. Those who remain in the school some 
months get disciplined and a start in the right direction, which 
families can improve upon when applying their own treatment. 

The subject of placing out children has been discussed in 
our reports from year to year. Suggestions have been made 
in regard to paying the board of small children, which, we 
trust, will receive favorable attention from the legislature, at 
no distant day. 

We are looking forward to the time when the children of 
the Primary School will be better cared for than now ; when 
they will have the same food that their officers eat, and 
sit at their meals with them. It has been inconvenient to 
make this provision for so large a number, but the gradual 
decrease which must necessarily take place through the efforts 
making to furnish homes in families, will soon permit of such 
an experiment. When these children go out we expect them 
to fare as well as the families in which they are placed, and the 
example should be furnished here. 

Alterations have been made in the buildings, to prevent 
more effectually the association of children with the adults, 
whose influence is always working against the good influences 
of the schools, and the discipline they are under. While the 
Almshouse and Primary School are connected, these influences 
will be at war with each other, and " eternal vigilance " on the 
part of officers can only prevent " evil communications " from 
" corrupting good manners." 

The sanitary condition of the institution has been excellent. 
The new hospital has proved a valuable investment in saving 
life and health, inasmuch as it takes away from the other build- 
ings the sick and ailing, leaving a purer atmosphere for the 
officers and inmates. The superintendent has continued to act 
as physician, having the assistance of a student the larger por- 
tion of the time. 

The number of admissions to the hospital have been four 
hundred and three — a falling off of six hundred and twenty- 



1869.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



four from last year. Number of deaths, forty — -just half the 
number recorded in our last report. Number of births, 
twenty, fourteen of which were illegitimate. 

The inventory which follows exhibits an increase of valua- 
tion over that of last year to the amount of $3,379.35. 



Inventory of 1869. 

[By Valuation of D. B. Bishop, Esq., on the first day of October, 1869.] 
Real Estate, — 
176 acres land, viz., 23J acres of woodland, and 

152 J acres of tillage, pasturage and unproductive, 114,778 69 



uuuunigOj ...... 


ao,uoo vv 




$114,663 69 


Personal Estate, — 




Live stock, 


$6,006 00 


Products of farm, . 


6,001 96 


Mechanical and machinery, . 


5,416 70 


Carriages and agricultural implements, 


2,344 07 


Beds and bedding (inmates' depart- 




ment,) 


7,797 34 


Other property in inmates' department. 


4,334 51 


Personal property in Superintendent's 




department, 


4,715 66 


Ready-made clothing, &c, . 


5,029 53 


Dry goods, 


1,603 99 




2,544 55 


Drugs and medicines, ... 


, 496 49 


Fuel, 


5,564 09 


Library and school books, . 


. 356 42 


Total personal, 


5° °1 1 31 


• *J £i,iu\.X. tfX 


Total invoice, 


.1166,875 00 



Officers and their Salaries. 
Horace P. Wakefield, Superintendent and Physician, $1,800 00 
Charles F. Foster, As sH- Superintendent, Chaplain, 

and Principal, 1,200 00 

John N. Lacey, Engineer and Machinist, . . 1,100 00 



8 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Alfred 0. Hitchcock, Assistant- Clerk, . 

George H. Fisherdick, Farmer, 

Willard J. Clark, Assistant-Farmer, 

George W. Cobb, Baker, 

Edwin N. Montague, Assistant, 

Robert Gallivan, Cook, Inmates'* Department 

James Milliken, Supervisor, . 

Gordon Chapman, Watchman, 

Mary B. Wakefield, Matron, . 

Susan C. Yarrington, Assistant-Matron, 

Lizzie H. Drake, Teacher, 

Ida E. Allen, Teacher, . 

Sarah E. Griggs, Teacher, 

Mary S. Beebe, Teacher, 

Susie S. Beebe, Teacher, 

Nettie M. Sage, Teacher, 

Mary W. Richmond, Laundress, 

Charlotte A. St. Johns, Nurse, 

Maria C. Goodwin, Seamstress, 



Inspectors. 



Gordon M. Fisk, 
Eieazer Porter, 
Thomas Rice, 



$500 00 


600 00 


475 00 


624 00 


480 00 


360 00 


300 00 


300 00 


300 00 


260 00 


200 00 


200 00 


200 00 


200 00 


200 00 


200 00 


200 00 


200 00 


200 00 


$160 00 


160 00 


160 00 



Many changes have taken place among the subordinate offi- 
cers of the institution. Joseph H. Brewster, who had for 
eleven years been Assistant-Superintendent and Clerk, re- 
signed on account of impaired health. In parting with this 
officer, it is but an act of justice to say that his long, efficient 
and faithful service, his uniform courtesy to all who have 
visited or been in any way connected with the institution, 
together with his kindness to the inmates, entitle him to the 
gratitude of the Commonwealth. Mrs. Maggie H. Brewster, his 
wife, who has been equally efficient, as a teacher for many 
years, has also left us. 

Rev. Charles F. Foster, for three years principal of the Pri- 
mary School, and Chaplain, has been appointed Assistant- 
Superintendent; and George H. Fisherdick, formerly our farmer, 
was re-appointed last spring, after several years' absence. 



1869.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 9 

It is not easy to obtain teachers suited to our schools, and 
still more difficult to retain those best fitted for the work. 
Higher salaries tempt them in other quarters, and few can for 
many seasons bear the confinement and isolation of the institu- 
tion. 

Besides performing the ordinary duties of the Almshouse and 
Primary School, which are of themselves full of many vexa- 
tions, the Superintendent has been annoyed with two petty 
prosecutions — one for discharging an inmate, the other for 
retaining one— which seem to have been conceived in a spirit 
of malice rather than in a desire to promote justice. In the 
latter case he was acquitted ; in the former a decision has not 
yet been reached. 

The report of the Superintendent, and that of the Principal 
of the Primary School, which we append, will be found to con- 
tain interesting details of what has been accomplished in the 
past year. 

To the Superintendent, and his subordinate officers who have 
served the State in their several capacities, we accord due 
merit. They have not passed through the year " on flowery 
beds of ease," but have performed with zeal and alacrity what- 
ever has been found for them to do. 

GORDON M. FISK, 
ELEAZER PORTER, 
THOMAS RICE, 

Inspectors. 

State Primary School and Almshouse, 
Monson, Sept. 30, 1869. 



10 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT AND PHYSICIAN. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School and State 
Almshouse at Monson. 

Gentlemen : — The sear and yellow leaf reminds us that the 
time has arrived to give the annual account of our steward- 
ship. A kind Providence has watched over us and the interests 
of the institution committed to our care. 

The following is a summary of receipts and expenditures 
during the year : — 

Receipts. 
Casli received from the unexpended appropriation 

of 1868, $11,253 76 

Cash received from the annual appropriation of 

1869, ........ 38,973 14 

Cash received from the special appropriation of 

June 9, 1868, 3,047 77 



Receipts from all appropriations, . . . 153,274 67 
Receipts from other sources, 176 57 



Total receipts, . 


.153,451 24 


Expenditures. 




Salaries of officers, ($2,600 of which 


was for edu- 


tional purposes,) 


. 19,923 82 


Labor, . . . . . 


. 2,637 40 


Total for salaries and labor, . 


.112,561 22 


Meats, 


.$3,563 02 


Fish, 


. 817 08 


Fruits and vegetables, . 


12 00 


Flour, 


. 7,406 62 



1869.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



11 



Grain and meal, . 










11,488 76 


Tea and coffee, 






834 89 


Sugar and molasses, 






1,913 12 


Milk, butter and eggs, . 






. 990 40 


Salt and other groceries, 






. 655 94 


Other provisions and supplies, 




. 2,001 86 


Total for provisions, 




<ffi1Q GS9 fiQ 




Clothing, shoes, hats and caps, 




11,786 58 


Fuel and lights, . 




3,678 45 


Medicines, . . . 




i51 53 


Furniture, dry goods and bedding, 




3,395 92 


Transportation, .... 




638 21 


Ordinary repairs, . 




1,113 28 


Expenses of Inspectors, 




480 00 


All other current expenses, . 




2,174 28 


Total current expenditures, . 


13,418 20 


. 145,663 11 


Extraordinary Expenditures. 


Paints and oils, . H . . $870 98 


Painters, 










1,217 37 


Carpenters, . 










299 50 


Masons, 










450 00 


Lumber, 










423 22 


Lime and cement, 










220 84 


Plumbing, 










247 75 


Eaves gutters, 










85 42 


Drain pipe, . 










97 49 


Lightning rods, 










217 27 


Furniture, 










300 80 


Range, . 










133 15 




$4,563 79 


Balance of special appropriation of 1868, 3,047 77 


Total extraordinary expenditures, . 
Total expenditures, 


7 fill c\(\ 




.$53,274 67 


Cash paid into State treasury, 
Total cash payments, 


176 57 


. $53,451 24 



12 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Whole number in Almshouse October 1, 1868. 
Admitted during the year, 



Births. 



Total, . 

Whole number discharged, 
Whole number deserted, 
Transferred to Primary School, 
Deaths, 

Total discharged, . 



528 

115 

106 

33 



137 

736 
20 

893 



782 



Kemaining October 


1, 1869— 








Men, . 


. 


. 


33 




Women, 


• • 


. 


42 




Total adults, . 


• 


• 


— 


75 


Boys, . 


• • 


. 


22 




Girls, . . . 


. . 


• 


14 




Total children, . 


. . 


, 


— 


36 


Total adults and children, . 


. 




— Ill 


Total, . 


• 


. 








893 



The average number supported in the Almshouse for 

the year ending October 1, 1869, is . . . 139J 

The average number supported in the Primary School 

is . 360J 

The average number supported in both departments, is . 500 



Dividing the actual amount drawn from the treasury of the 
Commonwealth, $45,663.11, by the average number of inmates, 
500, gives an annual cost of $91.32, and a weekly cost of $1.75 
for each inmate. 

Dividing the current expenses, minus the increase of the per- 
sonal assets, $3,379.35, we have the annual cost, $84.56, and 
the weekly cost, $1,621 

If to the current expenses, be added the extraordinary ex- 
penses, $4,563.79, and the balance of the special appropriation 
expended, $3,047.77, the weekly cost will be $2.05 against 
$2.34 for the last year, made on the same basis. 

We have received in cash from all sources, the sum of 



1869.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 13 

$176.57, which has been paid over to Jacob H. Loud, Treasurer 
and Receiver-General of the Commonwealth. Of this amount, 
$170.64 was received from the Chicopee Falls Hosiery Com- 
pany, the proceeds of labor performed by the children on 
stockings. We have also exchanged goods, which have either 
been produced or have accumulated in the establishment, or 
were accounted for in the last inventory, such as fat cattle, 
milk, calves, rags, flour-barrels, &c, for flour, fresh meat, 
labor, &c, to the amount of $765.79. This exchange has 
diminished our drafts on the treasury of the State to the same 
amount. 

The loafers that came in here in the winter for a shelter 
through the cold weather, expecting nothing to do, were set at 
work hauling stone, laying wall, cutting rails, re-laying fences, 
cutting and hauling wood, and preparing the same for the 
fires. Those not able to go to the fields and woods, were 
provided with stone in the yard, and a sufficient quantity was 
broken to macadamize the court in the rear of our buildings, 
which in the spring of the year has always been covered with 
mud. We commenced winter with only three cords of wood 
for our supply, and before we could begin farm work in the 
spring, we had over a year's supply fitted for the fire, and 
have now more than fifty cords on hand, but no shed to put 
it in. 

The old lodge for the gate-keeper has been removed and con- 
verted into necessary appendages to the hospital ; while a new 
gate-house has been constructed from what was formerly the 
hose-house. This is now a comfortable and respectable build- 
ing. 

A new boiler, for which a contract had been made at the time 
of making the last report, has been set at an expense less than 
the estimate. It is a boiler constructed on the fire-box prin- 
ciple, and the way it generates steam and performs the work 
required is perfectly satisfactory. 

An entrance to the front of the buildings has been made 
during the year, so that carriages can be driven to the front 
door, where we should be so happy to receive our friends, and 
others having business at the institution. 

Using reasonable precaution, we purchased from Our special 
appropriation, at a cost of about a hundred and fifty dollars, 



U ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

three fire-extinguishers. We hope never to have occasion 
to use them, but think they may be both handy and useful 
in so large an establishment. 

The main buildings and barns upon the premises were pre- 
viously supplied with lightning-rods, but believing that our 
sick and our children should be as well protected from the 
thunderbolts as our cattle, we have also applied rods to the 
hospital and the play-houses of the boys and girls, at an expense 
of over two hundred dollars. 

We found that certain parts of the house had settled several 
inches, because the wooden supports were rotting away, and 
that it was necessary to renew the foundation before we could 
repair the superstructure. We commenced by placing brick 
supports in the cellar, thus rendering the basement secure, and 
then proceeded to make the needed repairs above, leaving those 
below for a time when we should have less pressing demands. 

The business office of the institution was a small room, in 
no way adapted to our wants. This has been enlarged, 
finished, and furnished anew throughout. The reception-room 
adjoining, which was in a dilapidated condition, has had a new 
floor laid, has been plastered anew, and partially supplied with 
new furniture. The sewing-room has been enlarged by the 
addition of the room formerly used as the hospital kitchen. 
This has also had a new coat of plaster and of paint. 

The kitchen and Superintendent's dining-room were small 
and without the modern conveniences. These have been en- 
larged by taking in the piazza in the court. The latter was in 
such a dilapidated condition that it was necessary to entirely 
rebuild it. The timber was so rotten that it endangered the 
lives and limbs of the occupants of the house. The dining- 
room has been enlarged, newly plastered, finished, painted and 
furnished. A new range has been set, and such other improve- 
ments have been made in the kitchen as tend to make it more 
convenient for the purposes for which it was designed. Here- 
tofore we have had only one range and one small kitchen to do 
the cooking for a family of from thirty to forty persons. While 
making the changes already mentioned, it was found necessary 
to provide temporary accommodations for the kitchen work. 
The basement was made available for this object by furnish- 
ing it with a brick floor and a portable range, which answered 



1869.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 15 

a good purpose during our transition state, and may be of service 
to us on any extra occasion, or in any emergency in future. 

The buildings have not been painted for seven years. To 
neglect them so long, we think, is poor economy. They have now- 
received two coats of paint at an expense of some two thousand 
dollars. We believe a coat of paint should be laid once in three 
or four years. The eaves troughs were in a ruinous condition. 
All of these have been overhauled and repaired, requiring some 
six hundred feet to replace what was entirely used up. This, 
it was necessary to do, before the buildings could be painted. 

In the spring we hired the pasture adjoining our grounds, 
deeming this essential in order that we might raise the requisite 
supply of milk. From the fourth of June, when the contract 
for the previous supply expired, we have been able with this 
addition to our pasturage to furnish all that we have consumed ; 
and although this may not hold out through the autumn, we 
believe that by the addition of some new milk cows to our herd, 
we can, even after they come to the barns, furnish the full 
amount needed for home consumption. The sum paid per 
annum for milk, when we entered upon the duties of Superin- 
tendent, was larger than the price asked for this pasture, which 
if now purchased, will give pasturage sufficient for a generous 
supply of milk. 

A partition has been thrown across one of the school-rooms, 
to afford entrance for the scholars without passing through the 
other rooms. An entry has also been made to enable the 
women to go to and from the dining-hall without entering the 
common yard. By this arrangement the women and men enter 
and return from the dining-hall through different doors, and 
the contact of the inmates of the Almshouse with the children 
of the Primary School is greatly diminished. 

The desks have been removed from the chapel, and their 
places supplied with settees, so that we are better convened for 
the services on Sunday, and the children can assemble for morn- 
ing and evening devotions in one room more like a family 
group, while there are also ample accommodations for the 
diminished number of scholars in the other rooms. The loose 
plasterings in all the school-rooms has been removed, and the 
whole thoroughly repaired. 

The officers' sitting-room which was formerly too contracted 



16 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

for its purpose, has been enlarged, and with a new floor, new 
paint, and new plastering, is one of the most convenient, 
pleasant, and cozy rooms in the house. 

During the last season we were without a refrigerator, except 
one in the shape of on old box, from which everything had to be 
taken in order to fill it with ice, and which might be added to 
the four things which say not, " it is enough." In the early 
part of the season I constructed a refrigerator in the cellar 
large enough to hold everything necessary to be preserved in 
such an establishment, and this has afforded us every con- 
venience that could be desired, while it has consumed less ice 
than the apology for one did last year. The above article, if 
not planned on scientific principles, is constructed in accordance 
with my own views, and is protected from infringement by the 
caveat inscribed on the door without, and put down in ice 
within, " Patent applied for." 

The loafers that were in last winter, suitable for such work, 
I kept employed in scraping the whitewash from the wood-work 
and plastering, which had accumulated, till in places it had 
become nearly as thick as the original coat of mortar. After 
following this process through the whole establishment, I set 
masons at work taking off places that were loose and defective, 
and repairing till, room by room, entry by entry, we have gone 
over the whole of the inmates' department in the main build- 
ings, and to a large part of the walls there has been applied a 
skim-coat of plaster of Paris. Two masons have been constantly 
at work repairing since last winter. The tops of all the chimneys 
have been taken down and relaid or repointed with cement, and 
the slated roofs have all been repaired, and parts of them entirely 
relaid. 

At the time of making our last report, we had tried the ex- 
periment of concrete walks. Although it took them a long 
time to harden, so that we could drive over them with a heavy 
load, we found they were not affected by the winter's cold, nor 
thrown out of place by the frost. In those portions of the 
yards that have been graded this season, we have placed the 
concrete walks at an expense of about four hundred dollars. 
The material, if properly laid, is capable of making the most 
durable, and, at the same time, not expensive walks. The old 
-stones formerly used had become broken and so uneven, 



1869.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 17 

that we decided to move and relay them in the yards of 
the boys and girls, and put concrete in their place. We 
also bought of the parties who put in these walks, the right 
to construct the same and use these materials for any purpose 
connected with the grounds and buildings of the institution. 

The water which principally is used in the institution for 
washing, bathing, and culinary purposes, is taken from a small 
stream that runs through a ravine in our own land. The dam 
across this ravine had become so dilapidated, that there was 
reason to fear that it might give way, and leave us without 
water from that source at any time. Across this ravine it was 
impossible to pass with a team from one part of the farm to the 
other. We have now bridged it with a stone wall, and banked 
the same with gravel of sufficient width for a road-bed, at the 
same time making a permanent dam, as well as a good passage- 
way. A sluice-way has been constructed to carry off the sur- 
plus water, and also a brick well for the purpose of filtering the 
water and protecting the pipe from the falling and decaying 
leaves and the debris of the stream. We have also made a 
connection between the two sources of supply, so that in case of 
accident or making repairs, the institution can be furnished 
with water from either source. 

The farm has been under the management of George H. 
Fisherdick, who has had the charge of it from time to time 
since operations were first commenced on the grounds. He 
knows what has been done before, what is necessary to be done 
now, and has the ability and disposition to take hold. and do it. 

The yards that were graded last season and sown to grass, 
produced over eight tons of hay the present season, which is a 
good interest on the cost, although the expenditure on them 
was large. In the spring we stocked to grass about nine acres, 
some of which has been under the plough since the State 
bought the farm. During the dry weather, since haying, we 
have cleared of stone and stumps over five acres of land in the 
middle of our farm, — of superior quality, and yet so springy 
and wet that it has been impossible to work it, since I have 
had charge of the same, until this autumn. We have ditched, 
put in under-drains to carry off the water, and sunk under the 
surface more stone than would suffice to enclose the piece with 
a good wall. Last year we commenced the process of reno- 
3 



18 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

vating our pastures by ploughing and grubbing up the bushes. 
About nine acres were put under the plough last fall, which 
being planted with potatoes has produced a good crop, — al- 
though they suffered somewhat by the drought. This treat- 
ment we propose to continue, where the land is not too rocky 
and precipitous. We have, with a machine constructed for the 
purpose, pulled with our teams the birches on about twenty 
acres more of pasturage, and mowed the rest of the bushes on 
the same. This process, if rigorously followed for a time, and 
the sowing of plaster, will kill out the mosses and bring in the 
honeysuckle, and exchange the coarse and worthless brakes for 
the fine and tender grasses. 

We have laid some five hundred feet of culvert in our yards 
and around our buildings for the purpose of conveying off the 
water under ground, besides the stone sags to carry off the sur- 
face water. The court has been macadamized with four or 
five inches of broken stone, the terrace covered with turf, and 
the balance of the yards graded, with the exception of a por- 
tion that has been reserved for the storage of coal under the 
broad canopy of heaven. The wooden drains in the court-yard 
were all taken up, and replaced with cement pipe before the 
court was graded and macadamized, and the concrete walks 
were laid. It became necessary to re-lay the old cesspool, and 
a new one has been put in, in order to take the surface water 
without overflowing the walks. 

The rooms where the clothing, bedding and necessary goods 
of the institution have been stored, are small and located far 
from each other, making it very inconvenient for those who 
have the care of them. The temporary one erected in the 
fourth story, I have removed and am about to convert the 
unfinished part into sleeping rooms for the employees of the 
institution, whose accommodations have hitherto been exceed- 
ingly limited. The store-room for the males, I have removed 
from the second to the first floor, and made a new entrance to 
the same so that the boys can pass hither from the bathing- 
room with much less exposure. The old one, I intend to refit 
for the boys, so that they can have a place to store Sunday and 
holiday suits. I propose to try the experiment of having each 
boy take the care of and be responsible for his own suit. I do 
not propose this change as a simple matter of economy, for I 



1869.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 19 

know that a greater amount of labor and watchfulness will be 
imposed on the attendants, but I think it will be a kind of dis- 
cipline for the child, learning him habits of carefulness and 
economy, which will be of service to him, when he shall in 
after-life depend on his own efforts, instead of on the State, for 
his support. The policy of the State in her treatment of these 
coming men and women is not merely to see how meanly they 
can be provided for, how niggardly they can be treated, but to 
inspire a confidence in themselves, prompting them to feel that 
they have the elements of manhood in them, although they are 
poor, unfortunate, and wards of the State, and inducing them 
to think that they can rise in the scale of being, and from the 
dregs become the ornaments of society. 

On the 24th of April, the last day that prices could be ob- 
tained at reasonable rates, I purchased my coal delivered at 
Palmer for $1.61 per long ton. In this I was fortunate, for 
were I forced to purchase at the present price, it would cost me 
eight hundred dollars more than I paid for it. 

The importance of adding to our premises a piece of land 
which controls the whole supply of water for the extinguish- 
ment of fire, I need not again urge upon your consideration. 
The reasons then given are now valid. The bond for a deed, 
I have renewed and the same will expire next July. 

That such an institution as this should be heated by steam is 
demanded for the comfort of the children, and for the security 
of the buildings. It is not merely a question of dollars and 
cents ; but it is one far more important, — a question involving 
the safety of all the poor unfortunate wards of the State, gar- 
nered up here, because their natural guardians fail to care for 
them. Will Massachusetts, which giveth liberally, and whose 
noble charities are her brightest jewels, longer turn a deaf ear 
to this pressing demand ? The experience and the anxieties of 
another winter press me to urge you to again call the attention 
of the governor and the legislature to this important subject. 

Joseph Shailer, the deaf and dumb boy, who has been with 
us about three years, whose prior history is entirely unknown, 
having been sent here from the town of Stockbridge, and who 
probably wandered or was smuggled over the State line from 
the State of New York, and who, although he has had a rough 
passage in life thus far, possesses one of the keenest intellects, 



20 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

and is endowed by nature with much more than ordinary 
capacities, has been sent to the Asylum at Hartford as a bene- 
ficiary of the State. 

Thomas Carroll, a blind boy, who has been receiving an edu- 
cation at the Perkins Institution for the Blind, for the past 
three years, still remains. We have also, being trained at the 
Institution for Feeble-Minded Youth, two boys, Ellis and Gil- 
lette. Thus the State with provident care takes charge of the 
deaf, the dumb, the blind, and makes an effort to call into 
action the sluggish energies of minds enfeebled, and fan the 
glimmering . spark of intellect, the handiwork of nature not 
made well. These persons are discharged from our institution, 
but here is their home, and here they return to spend their 
vacations, and by us they are cared for and clothed. 

At the time of making the last annual report, the work of 
the medical department was being done by D. W. Osgood, who 
left soon after to attend lectures and take his medical degree in 
New York. Alfred 0. Hitchcock of Fitchburg, who was em- 
ployed as supervisor in the institution, took Dr. Osgood's place 
for a few weeks till he also left to attend the lectures of the 
Harvard Medical School. During the absence of Mr. H., 
Charles W. Page performed these duties. At the close of the 
lecture term in Boston, Mr. Hitchcock returned and Mr. Page 
went to New York to attend a course of lectures. This fre- 
quent change of attendants is a source of anxiety to me, but I 
wish to bear testimony to the fidelity and zeal manifested by all 
these young gentlemen in the pursuit of their studies, and the 
skill with which they have treated, and the kindness shown to 
all under their care. No epidemic has prevailed among our 
children during the year, and the institution has enjoyed a 
greater measure of health than usually falls to our lot. Dis- 
eases of the eye, that scourge to all almshouses, still continue 
with us, but they consist of old chronic or imported cases, 
rather than those generated on the premises at the present 
time. 

I would call your attention to the constant violation of the 
statute forbidding sick persons to be sent to the Almshouse. 
This abuse has existed since I have had any knowledge of these 
institutions. Quite a number of deaths is from that class 
recently admitted to the institution, whose lives would have 



1869.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT—No. 25. 



21 



been prolonged, if not preserved, had they not been compelled 
to bear the fatigue and exposure incident to a removal to the 
Almshouse. On the 22d of October, a man sixty years of age 
was brought with a permit from the overseers of the poor, 
dead. I could find no statute authorizing me to receive dead 
men, and no law enjoining on me to bury the dead of any who 
might choose to bring them, having enough of that work of 
our own ; and I, therefore, concluded to let those so dead to 
every principle of humanity, bury their own dead. 

The whole number of births for the year is 20. Of these, 14 
were illegitimate ; males, 10 ; females, 10. Four mothers 
were natives of Massachusetts ; four of other States ; and 
twelve were foreigners. Of the fathers, thirteen were foreigners ; 
six of other States ; and one unknown. 

The whole number of births since the opening of the insti- 
tution is : males, 159 ; females, 193 ; total, 352. 

The whole number of deaths during the year is : males, 24 ; 
females, 16 ; total, 40. Of these seven belonged to the Primary 
School, all males. 

The following table gives the ages of those who have died : — 



Under 1 year, 
Between 1 and 5, . 

5 and 10, . 

10 and 20, 

20 and 30, 

30 and 40, 

40 and 50, 

50 and 60, 

60 and 70, 

80 and 90, 

Total, 

Number of admissions to the Hosp 
Average number in Hospital, . 



tal, 



10 
5 
3 
3 
4 
6 
4 
1 
3 
1 

40 

403 
37 



Whole number of deaths since the opening of the institu- 
tion : males, 523 ; females, 485 ; total, 1,008. 

John Farrell, an Irishman by birth, 23 years of age, was 
brought to this institution, January 17, 1868, from the town of 



22 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Holyoke, with a broken leg and frozen feet, which injuries were 
received while in a state of intoxication. Subsequently, a part 
of one foot was amputated, and he remained in the hospital 
till his discharge, with the single exception of absconding from 
the Almshouse, going to Palmer, getting drunk, fighting with 
the officers in charge on his return, and remaining in the lock- 
up till he was over his drunken spreel 

The agent of the Board of State Charities, Dr. Wheelwright, 
the officer who had the disposal of those supported by the State, 
left written directions with me for the disposal of certain per- 
sons, and among the rest to remove John Farrell to Palmer. 
The time and circumstances were left at my discretion. John 
Farrell enlisted in the service of the United States on the 
quota of Palmer, and was credited to that town. He told the 
agent of the Board of State Charities, that he served a year, 
and the officer that was sent to investigate the case, reported 
that he was entitled to relief from that town. It proved, on 
subsequent investigation, that said Farrell failed to serve one 
year, because he was discharged by the close of the war. He 
had performed his contract with the town of Palmer, the town 
had been credited with him on its quota, and received his ser- 
vices till the government stepped in and discharged him. 
Under explicit instructions from my superior officers given by 
Dr. Wheelwright, and approved by Mr. Wrightington, who suc- 
ceeded Dr. Wheelwright as agent of the Board of State Chari- 
ties, on the 6th of October, 1888, John Farrell, with three dol- 
lars in his pocket, I discharged in the same manner as I 
discharge other paupers, and going to Palmer, I asked him to 
ride with me, and carried him thither, not knowing whether he 
would remain there, or go to the place whence he came to the 
institution. He remained in Palmer and after becoming 
beastly intoxicated, and squandering his money, he applied to 
the town authorities for assistance, who, instead of returning 
him to the State Almshouse, which they should have done, if 
he were a State pauper, sent him to their poor farm, where he 
has since been kept. 

On the 12th of October, Parker W. Webster, one of the 
overseers of the poor, brought an action against me in behalf 
of the inhabitants of Palmer for carrying a pauper into town, 
as alleged, in violation of the 20th section of the 70th chapter of 



1869.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 23 

the General Statutes, and attached a horse and buggy, the 
property of the Commonwealth. The Attorney-General noti- 
fied the attaching officer to return the property forthwith, 
which was done after retaining the same one week. 

On the 14th of October, the Board of State Charities passed 
the following vote, on motion of the secretary : — 

" That the course taken by Dr. Wakefield, and the general 
agent, was the usual and proper one, on the facts as presented 
to them, and that it receives the approval of this board." 

On the 23d of October, the case was tried before Austin 
Fuller, Justice of the Peace ; was defended by E. B. Gillett, 
District Attorney, at the request of Gov. Bullock, and I was 
mulcted in the sum of one hundred dollars and costs. From 
this decision an appeal was taken to the Superior Court. This 
case was forced to trial on the last day of the March term at 
Springfield, in the absence of material witnesses, with a verdict 
in favor of the plaintiffs. Exceptions were taken to the ruling 
of the court, and the case went to the Supreme Court on a 
question of law. This was argued before the full bench by 
Attorney-General Allen in my behalf at the September term of 
the court sitting at Springfield. The court has not yet reported 
its decision. 

On the night of November 12th, George Askham and several 
other tramps from Palmer applied at the Almshouse for admis- 
sion, and were told that if they came in, they' would be sub- 
jected to the rules of the institution, and detained till dis- 
charged by the proper authorities. Askham was put at work 
with the other inmates till the twentieth, when he absconded, 
and applied to J. H. Blair, then a trial justice, who sent me an 
insulting letter, and issued a warrant for my arrest for a vio- 
lation of section 30 of the 16th chapter of the General Statutes. 
On the twenty-eighth of November, I was tried before Gamaliel 
Collins, Esq., defended by the Commonwealth through Attorneys 
Allen and Gardner, and acquitted ; while the attorney who 
brought the suit was removed from the office of trial justice 
on the same day by the governor and council, and failing to 
obtain a renewal of his commission of justice of the peace, has 
since left the State. I have been prosecuted and fined because 
I discharged one pauper and took him to Palmer, and I have 
also been arrested for a violation of what is known as the Per- 



24 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

sonal Liberty Bill, which subjects the offender to a ten years' 
residence at the State Institution at Charlestown. In attempt- 
ing thus to do my duty as marked out by the proper authorities, 
I have failed to please some officious intermeddlers. During 
the year ending October 1st, 1868, there had been sent from the 
town of Palmer six hundred and ninety-five, nearly all of whom 
were travelling paupers sponging a living from the producing 
classes and the State ; — while by the town of Monson, during 
the same period, only two persons had been sent to the Alms- 
house. The difference is to a great extent occasioned by this 
fact : that Monson like other towns in th eCommon wealth, pro- 
vides for her travelling paupers, — while the authorities of Pal- 
mer turn theirs over to the State Almshouse ; and the Overseer 
of the Poor, who fills out the permit, has a premium of a shil- 
ling a head for all sent to the institution. This had become 
such an intolerable nuisance, that the authorities wished me 
to do what I could to abate it. This class comes covered with 
filth and vermin so overburdened that they fail to carry away 
all that they bring. It is not to be believed that the legislature 
intended by the establishment of these institutions to create 
even a temporary home for this class of vagabonds. 

These tramps, when presenting themselves for admission, 
are informed that this establishment is not a tavern, but a 
pauper house, where those that are able are required to work, 
and that all are subjected to the same regulations and discip- 
line, and retained till such times as the authorities may see fit 
to discharge them. Many prefer to go on rather than run the 
risk of an interview with the general agent, while some, vexed 
that they have been sent two miles out of their way, with the 
assurance that they can leave when they please, return to plague 
the inventor of such false statements. The admissions from 
Palmer the present year have diminished nearly fifty per cent. 
Here is the secret of these annoying, not to say malicious 
prosecutions. Two individuals, because I could not be induced 
to do their bidding, instead of maintaining the rights and 
looking after the interests of this institution, for which I was 
appointed by the governor, determined that my administration 
should be made as odious as possible, and if in their power, a 
failure. The one who initiated these proceedings, issuing the 
writ and warrant, has " left his country for his country's good," 



1869.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 25 

while the other, who instigated them and served the warrant 
for my arrest, has failed to secure the reappointment of deputy 
sheriff, although like him who a for one morsel of meat sold 
his birthright," he " sought it carefully with tears." 

In my last report I urged the importance of a new wash-room 
and new washing apparatus. By the presentation of these 
claims, the committee of the legislature before whom this sub- 
ject was brought, was convinced of the importance of a part of 
these claims, because in their report they say they " think a new 
washing apparatus is necessary," and a Resolve was passed ap- 
propriating $4,500, for a new washing apparatus and other pur- 
poses. This appropriation has remained hitherto untouched, not 
for the reason that it was not needed, but because no provision 
was made for a wash-room. In the petition to the legislature 
for an appropriation for heating the institution by steam, it was 
contemplated that a wash-room could the better and more 
economically be connected with a building for such a purpose, 
but since that project did not receive sufficient favor in the 
minds of the committee, we were left without a suitable place 
to put our washing apparatus. It would be very poor economy, 
a waste of money, to attempt refitting the old wash-room. 
Every part of the apparatus and the fixtures are in a state of 
decay, and like the " wonderful one-hoss shay," will go 

" to pieces all at once — 
All at once and nothing first, 
Just as bubbles do when they burst." 

I would recommend that a re-statement of the case be pre- 
sented to the legislature at its next session, with the confident 
hope that it will meet with greater favor. 

For the cooperation of those connected with me in the dis- 
charge of these trusts committed to our care, I am obliged, 
trusting that the Father of the fatherless will in the future as 
in the past, continue His benignant smiles on this institution, 
and incline the hearts of all the friends of this charity to do so 
far as in them is, and with all their might, to promote its high- 
est interests and secure its greatest efficiency. 

HORACE P. WAKEFIELD, 

Superintendent and Physician. 

State Primary School, Oct. 1st, 1869. 
4 



26 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON 



[Oct. 



Statement No. 1. 

Nativity of Inmates received in Almshouse during the year ending 
September 30, 1869. 



Ireland, .... 


223 


Massachusetts, . 


211 


Other States, . 


138 


England, .... 


60 


Germany, . . 


. 26 


Scotland, 


. 24 


Canada, .... 


. 22 



France, . 

Prussia, . 

Other foreign countries, 

Unknown, 

Total, . 



4 
16 
23 

756 



Of the number received, 77 came from Tewksbury State 
Almshouse, 17 from Bridgewater State Almshouse, 74 from 
Worcester, 45 from Springfield, 13 from Monson, and 376 from 
Palmer. 



Statement No. 2. 
Products of the Farm. 



English hay, 

2d crop, 
Millet, . 
Corn fodder, 
Green corn fodder, 
Rye straw, . 
Summer squash, 
Winter " 
Parsnips, . , 
Beets, . 

English turnips, 
Mangel-wurtzel, 
Ruta-bagas, . 
Carrots, 
Millet seed, . 
Beans, . 
Peas in pods, 
Sweet corn ears, 
Rye, . 
Currants, 
Cucumbers, . 



1031 


tons. 


12 


« 


ioi 

1 


a 
u 


25 


a 


l 




5 


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150 


a 


150 


u 


250 


a 


375 


u 


800 


u 


2 


a 


8 


a 


25 


u 


76 


a 


30 


a 


5 


a 


45 


a 



Tomatoes, 
Onions, 
Quinces, 
Apples, 
Potatoes, 
Cabbages, 
Water melons 
Musk melons, 
Garden seeds, 
Pie Plant, 
Milk, . 
Pigs, . 
Calves, 
Calf skins, 
Veal, . 
Beef, . 
Pork, . 
Wood, . 
Lumber, 
Rails, . 
Posts, . 



48 bush. 

175 " 

3 « 

30 " 

2,683 " 
3,872 heads. 

2,600 lbs. 

800 " 

12 " 

575 " 
17,3451 gals. 
50 
12 
9 

1,119 lbs. 

5,259 " 

8,974 " 

78 cords. 

5,000 feet 
1,000 
500 



1869.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



27 



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28 



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[Oct. 





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1869.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



29 



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30 



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1869.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 31 



REPORT OF CHAPLAIN AND PRINCIPAL. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen : — At the request of the Superintendent, I present 
in this statement of the condition of the School, several items 
pertaining to the records and management, which have usually 
been included in the report of the Almshouse proper. The 
fact that we have two institutions, quite different in character, 
though under the same general supervision, needs to be recog- 
nized as much as possible. The law specifies that the children 
" shall not be considered as inmates of the Almshouse, nor 
allowed to mingle with the inmates, nor shall they be designated 
as paupers." This provision is carried into effect, so far as it 
can be, by separate records of admission and discharge, and by 
such arrangement of the buildings and premises, as will pre- 
vent common intercourse between the two classes, although in 
the appropriation and expenditure of moneys, and all that per- 
tains to the official management, there is in fact but one estab- 
lishment. 

The State Primary School is the offspring of the State Alms- 
house, and though dependent upon the maternal breast for 
support during the period of its infancy, it is gathering year by 
year a life of its own which may yet enable it to accomplish its 
distinct and important work. Much has been effected during 
the three years of its history. More than a thousand children 
have been received, and several hundred have been provided 
with good homes. Those who remain in the School have come 
to feel that they are no longer classed with the vicious, and 
that instead of being degraded by poverty, they may, through 
the assistance rendered by the State, and their own honest 
endeavors, occupy good positions in society. 



32 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



The following statement is prepared from the office records 
of the School, which, since the resignation of Mr. Brewster, 
have been kept by myself. 

Number of Children admitted from Oct. 1, 1868, to Oct. 1, 1869. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


From Monson State Almshouse, 
From Westborough Reform School, 
Returned from places, 


73 
10 
40 


33 
37 


106 
10 

77 




123 


70 


193 



Number of Children removed from Oct. 1, 1868, to Oct. 1, 1869. 



To families, . . . . • . 

Temporarily, 

Deserted, 

Died, 

Discharged by Board of State Charities, . 



142 
1 

4 

7 
50 



204 



81 
o 



22 



105 



223 
3 
4 

7 

72 



309 



Whole number of children October 1, 1868, . 
Net loss during the year, 

Whole number of children Sept. 30, 1869, 



306 

81 



225 



35 



62 



403 
116 



287 



Average number, 



361 



The principal points of interest relating to the children may 
be presented under four heads. 

1. Study. 
The schools are in session five hours a day, five days in a 
week. There have been seven departments during most of the 
year, and as many female teachers. The branches of study 
are those usually pursued in primary and intermediate schools. 
The average grade of intellect among the larger scholars who 



1869.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 33 

remain with us any length of time, is not high, since those who 
take children from the institution are apt to select the most 
promising. The younger are in less demand, and consequently 
a brighter and more hopeful class of these are left in school. 
Among the smaller children, during the past year, we have in- 
troduced the kinder-garten method of instruction, and find it 
both interesting and profitable. We have, of course, given it 
but a partial trial, since it is difficult to obtain teachers 
thoroughly acquainted with the system, and in a large establish- 
ment like this, it would also be impossible to furnish all the 
appliances needed to constitute a perfect kinder-garten, without 
making many radical changes, and incurring much expense. 
Those features of it, however, which we have adopted are a 
marked improvement on the old method. 
The statement of attendance is as follows : — 

Number in school, Sept. 30, 1869— Boys, . . .226 

Girls, ... 59 

Total, . . . . . . . . 285 

The average days of attendance for each scholar has been 
130 days. 

Number of different scholars, 584. Average age of children, 
nine years. 

2. Labor. 

Pains have been taken to afford industrial occupation to those 
children who could be made useful, or who may themselves be 
benefited by it. It was stated in the last report, that the 
schools had been graded with special reference to this object. 
The plan then proposed has been carried into effect through- 
out the year, so that children have devoted a part of the day 
to study and a part to labor. 

A class of the largest boys and girls were engaged during the 
winter in finishing stockings received from the manufactory of 
Chicopee Falls Hosiery Company. The amount of work per- 
formed, and the compensation received will be given below. 
Subsequently the children were employed in making articles of 
clothing for the establishment. Several boys work regularly, 



34 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

in the bakery, laundry, inmates' kitchen, and sleeping wards. 
Girls set tables in the dining-hall, wash dishes, scrub floors, 
and take care of the smaller children. Besides this, much has 
been accomplished by boys on the farm, in weeding, picking 
stones, &g. They have not been kept in the sewing-room when 
their assistance was needed for out-door work. 

The results of labor in many instances have not been very 
remunerative. Much time is spent in teaching children how 
to work, and frequently, as soon as they have learned, their 
services are wanted elsewhere. The question of profit to the 
State, however, should be regarded as of minor importance, 
when compared with the benefit which the child derives from 
such occupation. It is as much a part of education to teach 
the methods of labor, as it is to impart a knowledge of books. 
Indeed, no boy or girl can be said to be thoroughly furnished 
for life, who has not been trained to habits of industry. We 
hope that other modes of employment may be introduced into 
the institution from time to time as opportunity offers, for the 
direct object of instructing youthful hands to labor, even 
though the experiment may not seem to pay well in dollars and 
cents. 

Statement of Labor. 

From November 20, 1868, to March 1, 1869. 



Wired 318 dozen pairs stocking 


s, at 36 cts., . 


$114 48 


Finished 117 " " " 


at 48 cts., . 


56 16 




$170 64 


From May 1, to 


October 1, 1869. 




Made 78 Sheets. 


Made 14 Skirts. 




60 Shirts. 


4 Waists. 




38 Children' Chemises. 


54 Pairs Suspenders. 


48 Pillow-cases. 


94 Handkerchiefs. 


37 Bed Spreads. 


26 Aprons. 




97 Towels. 


19 Infants' bands. 


20 Roller Towels. 


Trimmed 275 Hats. 




32 Napkins. 







3. Recreation. 
It is a part of our work in caring for these children, to fill 
up with agreeable pastime those moments or hours which are 



1869.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 35 

not to be spent in labor or study. Living as we do in a separate 
community, with comparatively little intercourse with the out- 
side world, we are obliged to furnish means for their recreation 
from our own resources ; and, for this reason, those teachers 
and assistants are most successful, who find ways to amuse as 
well as to instruct the scholars. In the summer, teachers take 
their classes to walk in the neighborhood once a week when 
the weather is suitable. During the past season, a part of the 
boys' play-yard has been set apart for the cultivation of 
flowers, and nothing has afforded the children more delight 
than the simple and healthful occupation of tending and 
caring for these. Among the forms of amusement for the 
school-room, may be mentioned singing, gymnastics, dialogues, 
declamation, and the kinder-garten plays. The winter evenings 
have been occupied in diversions of this kind, and several public 
entertainments have been given. With all these varied 
sources of recreation, notwithstanding the restrictions needful 
for the maintenance of good order in so large an establish- 
ment, we doubt whether a happier set of boys and girls can be 
found anywhere in the Commonwealth. 

4. Moeal and Religious Instruction. 
Public services are held in *the chapel every Lord's day, at 
ten o'clock, A. M. A short discourse is addressed to the 
children, and a half hour is spent in Sunday school exercises 
under the direction of the Superintendent and teachers. The 
school is called together both morning and evening on week 
days, for the reading of Scripture, singing and prayer. A 
monthly exercise of great interest and profit is the Sunday 
school concert, commenced in May last, and continued until 
the present time. Topics are assigned to the different depart- 
ments of the school, and appropriate verses or hymns are selected 
to be recited or sung. Visitors are sometimes present on these 
occasions, and speak words of instruction and encouragement. 
We hope that the influence of all such efforts will prove salutary 
and lasting in the moulding of the characters of these little 
ones, and that He who is thus giving them the opportunity to 
know the truth, will also lead them to appreciate and apply it. 
There is occasion, certainly, for gratitude in the thought that 
many of them have already been rescued from evil associa- 



36 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. '69. 

tions, and had their whole course of life changed by the 
apparently adverse stroke of fortune which deprived them of 
parents and forced them into the arms of the State. Under her 
wise guardianship they have been amply provided for, and there 
is no doubt that the labors of the recently appointed Visiting 
Agent of the Board of State Charities will result in further 
improvement in their condition in the homes which are found 
for them elsewhere. 

In closing this part of my Report, as Chaplain I wish to bear 
testimony to the Christian cooperation of the superintendent, 
and the hearty good will of the officers of the institution, in all 
my efforts to impart moral and religious instruction to the 
inmates. 

Respectfully submitted. 

CHARLES F. FOSTER. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL KEPOET 



THE INSPECTORS 



ck, , < cA* . 



Mt jj^imt mi ftinwg Jptftwl 



M O IN" S O IST 



October, 1870. 



BOSTON": 

WRIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS, 
79 Milk Street (corner of Federal). 

1871. 



Commonroeoltl) of iBaaeacljusete. 



INSPECTORS' REPORT. 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Council. 

In submitting our Report for the year closing September 
30, 1870, we present the following statistics : — 

Number of inmates in the Almshouse department, October 1, 

1869, .... 
Admitted during the past year by permits,' transfers from 

other institutions and births, 

Total, . 

Transferred to the Primary School 
Discharged, eloped and died, 



Total, 



Now in the Almshouse, 

Average number through the year, 



When making our report last year, there, were in the 

Primary School department, .... 
Number admitted since, . . . . 



Total, 



Number placed in families, discharged, absconded and 

died during the year, 

Number now in the school, 



Ill 

676 

787 

186 
546 

732 

55 
127 



287 

275 

562 



230 
332 



4 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Number of boys, 260 

Number of girls, . . . . . • . 72 
Average number in the school department through the 

year, 318 

Average number supported in the Primary School and 

Almshouse, . . . . ' . . . 445 

Cost per week of each inmate, basing it upon the money 

drawn from the State treasury for current expenses, . $2.11 

Whole number of admissions since the opening of the 

institution, 18,614 

The Almshouse Department. 

It will be seen that though this institution bears the name 
of State Almshouse, and is universally known as such, it has 
almost ceased to exist as one. The number of inmate paupers 
has been growing less from year to year, till only fifty five re- 
main ; and of this number twenty-one are children, who might 
properly be transferred to the school department, thereby less- 
ening the number to thirty-four. 

Of the 659 admitted during the year, 201 were tramps, who 
came in from Palmer. A large number decamped after re- 
maining a few days, some were sent to the workhouse as vaga- 
bonds, and others were discharged. One hundred and eighty- 
six were children on their transit to the Primary School, and 
fourteen were female workers or mothers sent with their children 
from the State Almshouse at Tewksbury. 

Deducting the tramps, vagabonds and children, who should 
never have been sent to the almshouse, and we should have 
\ less than two hundred admissions of needy paupers. Many of 
*the latter are such as require only temporary assistance, and 
would gladly keep out of the almshouse if they could. They 
are made State paupers by force of circumstances, and too 
often much against their will. 

In view of these facts we believe the time has now come when 
this Almshouse may be abolished with positive advantages to 
the charitable purposes of the Commonwealth. By careful ob- 
servation during nearly the entire history of this Almshouse, 
we are convinced that more than three-fourths of the adult 



1870.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 5 

paupers admitted here are those needing only temporary relief, 
and could be more economically assisted by the State through 
the authorities of towns and cities. Driven by stress of weather 
or adverse circumstances, this class apply for help, asking in 
most cases for a night's lodging and a meal or two of food. 
Among them may be found scores of vagrants who should be 
sent directly to the workhouse ; but town and city officials 
find it easier to send them to the almshouse, and the process 
of committing them to the workhouse is left to the general 
agent of the board of state charities. Eighteen of this class 
were in this manner transferred from here to the workhouse in 
the past year. 

It may be urged that paupers are needed at the Primary 
School for workers ; but this argument will apply to all our 
juvenile institutions. If, as a measure of economy or necessity, 
it is desirable to employ this kind of help, may not the board of 
state charities be authorized to transfer to this place such in- 
mates of the Workhouse or the State Almshouse at Tewksbury 
as may be needed ? The better class could be selected, and the 
transfer made as a reward for good behavior. Here they may 
be classed as helpers instead of paupers. 

Another argument against the change is the separation of 
children from their mothers, who may be sent to a distant alms- 
house. Such cases of separation would be comparatively few, 
and the testimony of our Superintendent is, " that by far the 
worst and most contaminating influences " upon the children 
" come from their own mothers." To this may be added the 
opinion of the principal of the school, who says : " This sepa- 
ration should be made as complete as possible." 

The inmates in the Almshouse have been comfortably cared 
for. Fifty-seven, considered permanent paupers, have been 
transferred to Tewksbury. Others belonging out of the State 
have been sent away by the general agent of the board of state 
charities. 

The Primary School. 

The Act establishing the State Primary School contemplated 

the removal of ail almshouse influences from the children, 

making them State beneficiaries instead of State paupers. The 

Act says : " They shall not be considered as inmates of the 



6 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

almshouse, nor allowed to mingle with the inmates ; nor shall 
they be designated as paupers." Yet, under the present sys- 
tem, every child before entering the Primary School is admitted 
as an inmate of the Almshouse, and made a State pauper ! 

So long as the two departments remain so intimately con- 
nected, every provision quoted from the Act of 1866 must be 
disregarded or violated, and the almshouse continue to hang 
like a millstone about the necks of the children. 

The Primary School is considered an appendage to the State 
Almshouse ; when in fact the school is the main feature and 
principal establishment, and the Almshouse a small but in- 
jurious appendage to the school. If, however, the Almshouse 
and school are to continue twin institutions, we suggest that the 
law be changed so that children may be admitted directly to 
the school without passing through the ordeal of pauperism to 
reach it. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties in the way of full success, 
the school, under the charge of the Rev. Charles F. Foster, is 
bearing good fruit. We cannot commend too highly the inde- 
fatigable labors of Mr. Foster in instructing and improving the 
condition of the children. Entertainments are invented for 
their benefit, and their minds are kept employed in something 
new and interesting. In this way order and a love of learning 
are developed in intellects that have hitherto struggled in a 
chaos of ignorance, vice and vagrancy. 

The Visiting Agency Act of the last legislature has intro- 
duced a new element to the school, — a class of boys and girls 
who were formerly sent to the Reform and Industrial Schools. 
At first it was feared that they would work injury among the 
other children, but it is found that after a short time they con- 
form to the rules, assimilate with the other boys and girls, and; 
excel in many respects. 

Writing and music is made a specialty with one teacher, and 
in addition to the usual branches, singing is taught in all the 
divisions. 

The number of children attending school at this date is 298 
— boys, 234 ; girls, 64. Nine years is the average age of pupils, 
and each child has attended an average of 148 days. During 
the year 551 different pupils have attended school. 

The number of children received from the Almshouse at 



1870.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 7 

Tewksbury is 146 ; number from the Reform School, 6 ; from 
the Yisiting Agency, 24. 

There have been placed out in families, 140 — boys, 95 ; 
girls, 45 — and 77 have been returned. 

Additional books have been purchased for the children's 
library from a donation of $100 made by Hon. Thomas Talbot 
of Billerica. 

Sanitary Condition. 
Our hospital has at no time been full. The number of ad- 
missions has reached 357. Most of the sick or ailing have 
made a brief stay. We have had measles, whooping cough and 
other diseases incident to childhood, but no fatal epidemic has 
visited the institution. The number of deaths has been 39 ; 
number of births 17. The hospital has continued under the 
care of Dr. Wakefield, the Superintendent, who has had an 
assistant a portion of the time. 

The Farm. 

The crops in the main have been quite good. The hay crop 
is larger than that of last year, amounting to 139 tons, including 
ten tons of millet. The unusual drouth which has prevailed 
seriously affected the potato crop, diminishing it to one-fourth 
of what was expected. 

The legislature of last winter, in answer to our petition, ap- 
propriated |2,000 for the purchase of twenty-five acres of pas- 
ture land on the hillside south of the children's playgrounds. 
It is expected that this will obviate the necessity of hiring pas- 
turage in the future. 

Improvements and Repairs. 
We sent to the legislature last winter our annual prayer for 
steam to warm the buildings, and an appropriation of $16,000 
was made for this purpose. Of this amount $11,766.33 has 
been expended in erecting a boiler-house, purchasing two new 
boilers, and putting in iron piping through the main building 
and hospital. The work is not yet finished, but is so far 
advanced that it will be ready for use with the advent of cold 
weather. John N. Lacy, the engineer of the institution, has 
superintended the work. 



8 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

From an appropriation of $4,500, made by the legislature of 
1869, for laundry and other purposes, there has been expended 
$ 1,544.59 ; and the remainder will be expended before the first 
of next January. 

One boiler, which had been in use for nearly ten years, has 
been exchanged for a new one, and the old engine has also been 
exchanged for one larger and better suited to the capacity of 
the boilers. 

New floors have been laid in the chapel, school-rooms, and in 
other places. Several rooms for officers have been constructed 
in the old chapel, in the upper story of the main building, and 
other needful repairs have been made in the buildings and 
about the premises. 

The ice-dam, which had been quite an expense to the State, 
in consequence of accidents happening to it in heavy showers, 
went off again in the deluge of last October, and a bridge has 
been constructed in its place. A new ice-dam has been built, 
further up the stream. This is so constructed that the floods 
are expected to sweep over it instead of through it. 

Inventory of 1870. 

Real Estate > — 
210 J acres land, viz., 26J acres of woodland, and 
184 acres of tillage, pasturage and unpro- 



ductive, 


. 


$16,778 69 


Buildings, . . 


* * 


99,385 00 
$116,163 69 


Personal Estate f— 






Live stock, ..... 


$6,879 50 




Products of farm, .... 


5,595 67 




Machinery and mechanical tools, 


5,837 08 




Carriages and agricultural tools, 


2,617 00 




Beds and bedding (inmates' depart- 






ment), 


7,428 64 




Other property (inmates' department), 


4,051 74 




Personal property (Superintendent's 






department), . 


5,671 33 




Ready-made clothing, 


5,937 53 




Dry goods, . . . . . 


1,344 58 





1870.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



Groceries and provisions, . . . $2,246 84 




Drugs and medicines, . . . 368 10 




Fuel, 4,790 42 




Library and school-books, . . . 312 24 






£52,580 67 


JLUlcil ptJIbUIlal piUptJliy, • • < 


Total personal property and real estate, . $168,744 36 


Officers and their Salaries. 




Horace P. Wakefield, Superintendent and Physician, 


11,800 00 


Charles F. Foster, AssH- Superintendent, Chaplain, 




and Principal, ...... 


. 1,200 00 


John N. Lacy, Engineer, .... 


. 1,100 00 


Henry J. Moulton, Clerk, .... 


500 00 


George H. Fisherdick, Farmer, 


600 00 


Horatio H. Fisherdick, Assistant-Farmer, 


540 00 


George W. Cobb, Baker, .... 


624 00 


Robert Gallivan, Cook, inmates' department, . 


400 00 


Uriah Manning, Supervisor, ..... 


360 00 


Washington Upham, Watchman, 


300 00 


Mary B. Wakefield, Matron, .... 


300 00 


Susan C. Yerrington, Assistant-Matron, . 


300 00 


Lizzie H. Drake, Teacher, .... 


250 00 


Ida E. Allen, Teacher, 


250 00 


Mary S. Beebe, Teacher, . . 


250 00 


Susie S. Beebe, Teacher, .... 


250 00 


Alice W. Emerson, Teacher, 


200 00 


Maggie E. Baldwin, Teacher, .... 


200 00 


Nettie M. Sage, Teacher, 


200 00 


Mary W. Richmond, Laundress, 


250 00 


Charlotte A. St. John, Nurse, .... 


250 00 


Maria C. Goodwin, Seamstress, .... 


200 00 


Inspectors. 




Gordon M. Fisk, 


1160 00 


Eleazer Porter, 


160 00 


Thomas Rice, . . . . . 


160 00 



Following our own may be found the report of Dr. Wake- 
field, Superintendent, and that of Rev. Mr. Foster, Principal of 



10 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

the school and Chaplain. These contain many items of inter- 
est in relation to what has been accomplished during the year. 
There have been no drones in this busy hive of humanity; 
and from sunrise to sunset, year in and year out, the offi- 
cers, from highest to lowest, have labored with commendable 
diligence. 

GORDON M. FISK, 
ELEAZER' POTTER, 
THOMAS RICE, 

Inspectors. 



State Primary School and Almshouse, 
Monson, Sept. 80, 1870. 



1870.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 11 



REPORT OP THE SUPERINTENDENT AND PHYSICIAN. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School and Almshouse 

at Monson. 



Gentlemen : — -The year just closed has been one of unprece- 
dented extremes. It opened with a flood which the " oldest 
inhabitant " pronounced second to none since " the fountains 
of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven 
were opened, and the rain was upon the earth forty days and 
forty nights," and closed with a drouth, during which the 
heavens over our heads were brass, and the earth under our 
feet was iron, while our streams dried up like the brook of 
Chereth, from which the prophet drank when fed by the ravens, 
and yet " the barrel of meal wasted not, neither did the cruse 
of oil fail," because we drew our supplies from the treasury of 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as follows :— 

Receipts. 
Cash received from unexpended appropriation of 1869, 
Cash received from annual appropriation of 1870, 
Cash received from special appropriation of April 13, 

1869, for laundry purposes, &c, . . 
Cash received from special appropriation of March 

23, 1870, for the purchase of land, <fcc, . 
Cash received from special appropriation of March 

15, 1870, for steam-heating purposes, 

Receipts from all appropriations, .... 
Receipts from other sources, . 

Total receipts, $66,704 80 



$16,056 93 
35,302 48 


1,544 59 


2,000 00 


11,766 33 


$66,670 33 
34 47 



12 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Expenditures. 



Salaries, -j 
Labor, ..... 


• 




• 


• 


$10,271 23 
4,591 06 


Total for salaries and labor, 


$14,862 29 


Meats, . 

Fish, ...... 


• 




$3,626 79 
652 49 




Fruit and vegetables, . 
Flour, ..... 
Grain and meal, .... 
Tea and coffee, .... 


• 




66 39 

5,000 17 

2,097 07 

707 98 




Sugar and molasses, . 

Eggs, 

Other groceries, .... 


• 




1,841 
31 

603 


65 
42 
92 




All other provisions, .... 
Total for provisions and supplies, 




858 54 


15,486 42 






Clothing, . . . . -■ . 
Fuel and lights, .... 
Medicines, . . . . . 


• 


• 


• 


• 


2,745 64 
4,142 34 

200 72 


Dry goods, beds and bedding, . 
Transportation, ...... 

Repairs, ....... 

Inspectors, ....... 

Books, newspapers, postage and stationery, 
Hardware, ....... 


• 


• 


2,851 60 
955 53 

2,406 77 
360 00 
283 57 
669 82 


Soap stock, .... 
Agricultural and mechanical tools, 
Carriages and harnesses, 
Fertilizers, ..... 


• 


• 


• 


• 


347 57 
442 46 
285 35 
135 03 


Live stock, ..... 










1,619 12 


Other current expenses, 


• 


• 


' * 


* 


986 72 


Total current expenditures, 


$48,780 95 


Extraordinary Expenditures. 






Derrick, 


. 


. 


$177 26 




Stone lifter, .... 


. 


. 


150 


00 




Engine, . . 

Boiler, ..... 


' 


• 


500 00 

837 00 




Furniture, ..... 


» 


• 


914 20 


2,578 46 








Total current and extraordinary 


f exp 


enc 


itures, 


. 


$51,359 41 



1870.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25, 



13 



Cash expended from special appropriation of April 
13, 1869, for laundry purposes, .... 

Cash expended from special appropriation of March 
23, 1870, for purchase of land, &c, 

Cash expended from special appropriation of March 
15, 1870, for steam-heating purposes, 

Total expenditures, . . . 
Cash paid into State treasury, . . . . - . 



Total cash payments, ..... 

Whole number in the Almshouse October 1, 1869, 
Admitted during the year 3 . 
Births, . 

Total, .... 
Whole number discharged, . 
deserted, 
transferred to Primary School, 
died, ..... 

Whole number remaining October 1st, 1870, 
As follows : Men, . . . . 

Women, . . . • • . 

Total adults, .... 
Boys, ...... 

Girls, 

Total children. 



Total adults and children. 



$1,544 59 
2,000 00 

11,766 33 

$66,670 33 
34 47 

$66,704 80 

. Ill 

. 659 
17 

. 787 
444 

76 
186 

26 
— 732 

55 
6 
28 

34 
10 
11 
_ 21 

55 



The average number supported in the Almshouse for the 

year ending October 1st, 1870, is 127 

The average number supported in the Primary School is . 318 

The average number supported in both departments, . 445 



The increase of personal assets is $379.36. We received 
from the hospital at Rainsford Island, in common with the 
other almshouses, an amount of furniture and other articles 
which is more than sufficient to balance this increase. We 
have exchanged fat cattle for live stock and fresh meat, flour 
barrels for flour, rags for brooms, &c, from our assets inven- 



\ 
\ 

14 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

toried last year, or accumulated since, to the value of $720,63. 
Dividing the current expenditures, 148,780.95 by 445, the 
average number of inmates, and we have an annual cost of 
$109.62, equivalent to a weekly cost of $2.11. 

If to the current expenditures are added the extraordinary 
expenses and the amounts expended from the special appropri- 
ation, the annual cost will amount to $149.86, and the weekly 
cost to $2.89. This increase of cost is occasioned in part by 
the decrease in the number of inmates of the Almshouse. 

On the 28th of April, 1870, your honorable board passed 
the following vote : — 

" That this board unite with the board of state charities in 
recommending the legislature to abolish this Almshouse." 

On the 16th of May, however , the board of state charities 
not deeming it expedient to cooperate in petitioning for the 
abolition of the Almshouse, passed the following vote : — 

" That upon consideration of the vote of the inspectors of the 
State Almshouse at Monson, the general agent be instructed within 
thirty days to transfer all the State paupers in the State Alms- 
house at Monson to the State Almshonse at Tewksbury, who can 
with any propriety be so transferred." 

In accordance with this vote of the board of state charities 
the general agent removed several persons of considerable 
service here, to Tewksbury, where they have a large supply of 
this kind of help, and also instructed me to discharge a num- 
ber of others from my books as inmates (permitting me, how- 
ever, to retain them as helpers if I saw fit), or he should be 
obliged to remove them also to Tewksbury. 

Some of these have been in this institution for a long time, 
are of service here, yet are entirely incapable of taking care of 
themselves, and must remain the wards of the Commonwealth 
during life, to be supported either here or in some other State 
institution. It costs no more to support them here, where their 
services are valuable and needed, than at Tewksbury where 
the supply of such material is much larger and less needed. 

These persons have heretofore been reckoned as inmates, but 
now must be classed as helpers. Reckoning them as helpers^ 



1870.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 15 

the number of inmates is diminished, and consequently the cost 
per capita is increased in the same ratio. 

Supposing the Almshouse to be abolished, and no inmates to 
be retained, the expenses must be greater than at the Reform 
School at Westborough, inasmuch as these children are younger 
than those, and consequently will not be able to do as much 
towards defraying their own expenses. 

The plea for this step is, that the odium of the Almshouse 
will attach to these innocent inmates of the Primary School, 
and the contaminating influences of the paupers will be preju- 
dicial to them. 

The children are so isolated from all others, that by far the 
worst and most contaminating influences come from their own 
mothers. Is the legislature ready to take the children from 
these mothers, who are unable to keep their little flock together, 
but are willing to take up their abode in the Almshouse for the 
sake of having them educated and cared for, and send them to 
Tewksbury, retaining their children in the Primary School ? 
Will the Legislature be willing to double the expense, thereby 
making the condition of these children more desirable than 
before their entrance, and better than the great mass of chil- 
dren of the working classes throughout this Commonwealth? 
Our experience in this matter is, that it is impossible to hire 
any better class of help to do the work done by the inmates, or 
whose influence over these children is any more salutary or 
elevating. 

The question resolves itself into one, in our opinion, of dol- 
lars and cents alone. For the increase from this course in the 
expense per head we are not responsible, and only present the 
subject here in order that our silence may no longer be con- 
strued as approval of this change of policy. 

At the last session of the legislature, the claims of the insti- 
tution for more land, for being heated with steam, and for 
various other improvements, were again presented for consid- 
eration. The committee to whom the subject was referred, 
gave us a full hearing, examined the premises, and the legis- 
lature in a body paid us a flying visit, and attended one of the 
exhibitions of the school, when everything asked for was rec- 
ommended by the committee and cordially granted by the 
legislature. 



16 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

As soon as the legislature adjourned a warrantee deed of 
about 26 acres of land was delivered by Eli II. Fay to the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts, for the sum of two thousand dol- 
lars, which having been recorded was lodged in accordance 
with law in the custody of the treasurer. 

On the 15th of March the governor signed a Resolve appro- 
priating sixteen thousand dollars for the purpose of heating the 
buildings with steam. Having matured plans for the building, 
and for our boilers and apparatus, as soon as the season would 
permit, we proceeded to excavate, lay the foundation for the 
same, and put in the basement. We have erected the building, 
having the work done by the day. We contracted with the Rice, 
Barton & Fales Machine and Iron Co. of Worcester, for two 
fire-box boilers, eighteen feet long and forty-eight inches in 
diameter, for two thousand three hundred and fifty dollars. 
Of the two boilers in use previously we have removed the new 
one, procured a little more than a year since, into our new 
building, and the old one we exchanged with Rice, Barton & 
Fales for another, similar to the two we procured of them, thus 
placing our four boilers in the new building. We purchased 
the pipe and fixtures of J. H. Appleton & Co. of Springfield, 
and also contracted with them to do the work of putting up the 
6ame by the day. 

The work on the main building is nearly completed, and wo 
hope to let on the steam in a few days. The amount of tho 
appropriation, as hitherto expended, is $11,766.33. 

The plans for the building, calculations for the machinery 
for culinary and laundry purposes, and heating, the principle 
of heating, the amount of heating surface, and tho disposition 
thereof through the whole establishment, has been under direc- 
tion of John N. Lacey, the engineer of this institution. He 
has superintended the execution of the whole work. If it be 
Bkilfully done and be a success, he alone is entitled to the 
credit ; but if it be a failure the Superintendent holds himself 
alone culpable. 

Of the appropriation for " laundry and other purposes," we 
have expended the sum of 11,544.50. We have purchased an 
hydro-extractor, and also the materials for a washing machine 
and cistern for hot water. The room, which we intend to im- 
prove, for our new laundry is now used for a boiler-room, and 



1870.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 17 

cannot be fitted for laundry purposes till we move into our new 
building. As soon as this is vacated we shall proceed, with all 
possible dispatch, to fit up a wash-room, and also construct and 
arrange an entirely new washing apparatus. 

Since making our last report we have been continuing the 
work of improvements on our premises where the need was most 
urgent. A new floor has been laid in the chapel, and also in all 
the school-rooms and in some of the entries. The long seats in 
one of the school-rooms have been cut in twain, made into double 
seats, painted and varnished, and this room is now one of the 
most pleasant and handsome rooms we have. The seats of all 
the rooms have been repaired, varnished, and their general 
appearance much improved. Accommodation for the officers 
of the institution has been quite limited. To supply this want 
we have constructed four new rooms on the fourth story of the 
main body of the house. The bread room, the plastering of 
which was continually covered with mould from the steam, has 
been ceiled on the top and sides, painted and varnished. We 
have relaid the floors in three of the wards of the boys' depart- 
ment and one in that of the girls. This process we intend to 
continue, as opportunity offers, until we have gone over the 
establishment. In the basement under the business office we 
have constructed and fitted up a room for a water-closet, an 
appendage both necessary and convenient. The plastering of 
the hospital building has been skin-coated throughout ; the 
office thereof has been refloored, repainted and refitted. The 
woodwork of the hay-scales had entirely rotted away. This 
we renewed and reconstructed before we began to cut our hay. 
In making new arrangements, it was necessary to remove our 
old boilers and engine to the new building. The boiler had 
been in use for about ten years, and the engine more than fif- 
teen years ; and although they had done our work well in their 
old positions, we deemed it good economy to exchange them 
for new ones, for these reasons : This boiler was smaller than 
the others, and the old engine had to be worked at a much 
higher pressure than will be necessary to carry in order to heat 
the house. We expect with the new engine, 10-inch cylinder 
and 25-inch stroke, to be able do our work with the same pres- 
sure of steam we carry for heating purposes. We exchanged 



i 



18 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

engines for five hundred dollars, and boilers for eight hundred 
and fifty dollars. 

During the open weather of last winter, the " bummers" that 
yearly take up their abode in the almshouse, intending to live on 
the toil of others, consumers instead of producers, were kept at 
work cutting bushes and mowing the brush in our pastures. We 
also cleared about three acres of woodland that had been much 
thinned out before, and this spring sowed the same with grass- 
seed and plaster. This exercise we regard as tending to the 
health of this class of persons, if not to their pleasure, because 
by this process it takes but a very short time before they are 
confident they can earn their own living away from the Alms- 
house. About six acres of very rocky, bushy pasture were 
subdued, ploughed last fall, planted with potatoes, which have 
been gathered, and the same has just been sowed with rye. 
The weather was so mild during the winter months that no ice 
was made, and it was March before we could secure any. This 
we stored in our barn, because we had taken down our brick ice- 
house, intending to use the material for other purposes, and 
erect a new one of wood on the border of the pond we have 
constructed for bathing in the summer and cutting ice in win- 
ter. All our buildings were very combustible, except our ice- 
house ; but when the legislature concluded to let us heat our 
buildings with steam, we concluded our ice might be safe, if in 
a wooden building, provided it was located on the border of the 
pond at a distance from our other buildings. The ravine run- 
ning through our farm, across which we have constructed a 
dam, was filled with stumps, overgrown with a rank crop of 
underbrush. The stumps we have piled and burned, the 
bushes we have cut, and the sides of the ravine above the wa- 
ter's edge we have ploughed, thus converting an unsightly nui- 
sance into a useful, comely pond, surrounded with gently 
sloping banks. 

On the 4th of October, 1869, this section of the State was 
visited with one of the most destructive floods. In common 
with others we suffered ; our lands were washed, our terraces 
were torn, our bridges swept away, and our dam went again by 
the board. For four days we were cut off from all communica- 
tion east and west, for more than two weeks north and south, 
while for more than two months our only communication with 



1870.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 19 

the outer world was by the primitive mode of fording the streams, 
or going a circuitous route of miles. This was the third time 
that our dam had been carried away, and it brought us to a 
realizing sense that it was an altogether too expensive a luxury, 
to be indulged in longer at that place. A passage-way must be 
had across the stream to parts of our farm, and we decided to 
put in a bridge instead of a dam. This could not be built with- 
out a derrick, and they were in such demand, that a stock of 
love sufficient to procure a score of wives in Utah, would not 
procure the loan of a single derrick for a single day ; and no 
amount of money short of four dollars per day, Sundays not ex- 
cepted, would command one until everybody else had been 
served. Under the circumstances we decided to have one of our 
own. We procured one as soon as possible, at an expense of one 
hundred and seventy-five dollars, which in building the bridge, 
putting in the foundation of our new building, and in erecting 
a dam for our ice pond, has saved hitherto more than treble its 
cost. 

The extreme and protracted drouth has been the most severe 
ever known in this vicinity. We have had on our premises no 
fall of rain^— not an ordinary shower — since the twentieth of 
June last, when a hail-storm with heavy showers swept over the 
whole of New England. Our supplies of water, ordinarily am- 
ple, have admonished us that we must be economical even in 
the use of water. Our hay crop, grown before the drouth com- 
menced, was full; the rest of the farm crops have suffered, 
while the potato crop has been comparatively a failure. 

At the time of making out last annual report, the work of 
the Medical Department was being done by Alfred 0. Hitchcock. 
Soon after, Major Hitchcock left to attend his last course of 
lectures at Boston, where he graduated last spring. He was 
succeeded by Warren G. Hutchins, M.D., a graduate of the 
Medical School at Hanover, N. H. Dr. Hutchins remained 
with us until August, when he left to commence the practice of 
his profession. Both of these gentlemen were kind and attentive 
to their patients, and faithful in the discharge of their duties, 
and we hope will be equally popular and successful where ever 
Providence may cast their lot. Since Dr. Hutchins left, the 
medical work has been done by myself, with the assistance of 
the hospital nurses. We have had an epidemic of measles and 



20 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



whooping-cough. These have been of a mild type. Few chil- 
dren died of these diseases primarily, and yet in scrofulous, de- 
bilitated and diseased constitutions, these diseases were the 
cause of more early fatal terminations of other diseases, which 
for a long time, or from birth, had been lurking in the system. 

Whole number of births 17. Of these 11 were illegitimate ; 
males 9, females 8. Two mothers were natives of Massachu- 
setts, five of other States, and ten were foreigners. Of the 
fathers, ten were foreigners, two natives of Massachusetts, two 
of other States, and three unknown. 

Whole number of births since the opening of the institution 
369 ; males 168, females 201. The whole number of deaths for 
the year is 39 ; males 24, females 15. Of these 13 were pupils 
of the Primary School, — 8 males and 5 females. 



TABLE OF DEATHS. 



Under 1 
Between 



year, 

1 and 5, . 
5 and 10, . 
10 and 15, 
15 and 20, 
20 and 30, 
30 and 40, 
40 and 50, 
50 and 60, 
60 and 70, 
70 and 80, 



Total, 



39 



Whole number of deaths since the opening of the institution, 
1,047 ; males 547, females 500. Whole number of admissions 
to the hospital during the year, 357 ; average number, 43. 



At the time of the annual visit of the governor and council 
in November last, Hon. Thomas Talbot, then a member of the 
council, remained after the others had left. He visited the 
children in their schools, and heard their exercises when con- 
gregated together. He saw the need and felt the importance 
of these tender minds having something to feed upon in the 



■ 
1870.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 21 

way of reading. To meet this demand he generously proposed 
to give the sum of one hundred dollars, for the purpose of es- 
tablishing a library suited to the wants of the youthful readers. 
A few days subsequently the Superintendent received Mr. Tal- 
bot's check for the above sum, which has been expended under 
the direction of the Principal of the School in the purchase of 
books for a library. The children proposed that it be called the 
" Talbot Library," but Mr. Talbot objected, believing, no doubt, 
that it would not comport with the scriptural injunction, " Let 
not your right hand know what your left hand doeth." For 
this generous donation the children of the Primary School are 
under great obligations, and from week to week, as they read 
their little volumes, they hold in grateful remembrance the 
modest donor. 

To those efficient teachers and officers who have done all in 
their power to promote the best interests of the institution and 
spared no pains to make our manifold duties as easy and pleas- 
ant as possible, we would tender our kindest acknowledgments, 
trusting that such as conscientiously strive to fulfil their mission, 
will receive a boon more to be desired than gold, or the warm- 
est thanks— the plaudit, " Well done, good and faithful servant." 

HORACE P. WAKEFIELD, 

Superintendent and Physician. 

Monson, October 1, 1870. 



22 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Statement No. 1. 

Nativity of Inmates received in Almshouse during the year ending 
September 30, 1870. 



Massachusetts, . 


246 


France, .... 


7 


Other States, . 


103 


Switzerland, 


4 


Ireland, .... 


184 


Other foreign countries, . 


. 14 


British Provinces, 


39 


Unknown, 


. 13 


England, .... 
Germany, 


37 
18 


Total, 


. 676 


Scotland, .... 


11 







Of the number received, there were from- 



Palmer, 201 

State Almshouse, Tewksbury, . 138 
Worcester, . . . .60 
Springfield, . . . .36 
Visiting Agent Board of State 
Charities, .... 36 

Monson, 31 

State Almshouse, Bridgewater, 25 

Births, 17 

Boston, . . . . .12 

Holyoke, 11 

Northampton, .... 10 

Adams, 8 

Chicopee and State Primary 

School, 7 each, ... 14 
Stockbridge, .... 5 
Florida, Gardner, Milford, Pitts- 
field, Spencer and Webster, 4 
each, 24 



Northbridge,Washington, West- 
borough and Westfield,3 each, 12 

Cambridge, Douglas, Greenfield, 
Great Barrington, Hadley, 
Longmeadow, Montague and 
Otis, 2 each, .... 16 

Amherst, Auburn, Barre, Graf- 
ton, Hard wick, Huntington, 
Lee, Leominster, New Marl- 
borough, New Salem, Peru, 
Rutland, State Industrial 
School (Lancaster,) Ware 
West Boylston, West Stock- 
bridge, Whately, Wilbraham, 
Williamsburg and Williams- 
town, 1 each, ... 20 



1870.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



23 



Statement No. 2. 

The following Table shows the Number admitted each Month, Age 

and Sex. 



MONTHS. 


3 

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EH 


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57 


40 


17 


16 


13 


13 


11 


3 


- 


- 


1 


- 


November, . 


38 


27 


11 


6 


9 


6 


5 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


December, . 


88 


65 


23 


21 


17 


22 


12 


7 


3 


4 


2 


- 


January, 


125 


85 


40 


39 


26 


25 


14 


12 


5 


1 


3 


- 


February, 


42 


35 


7 


2 


9 


14 


10 


4 


1 


- 


2 


- 


March, . 


55 


43 


12 


12 


15 


6 


5 


7 


5 


2 


2 


1 


April, . 


38 


29 


9 


14 


11 


4 


4 


1 


2 


1 


1 


- 


May, 


50 


26 


24 


19 


5 


7 


6 


5 


4 


4 


- 


- 


June, 


38 


22 


16 


17 


8 


4 


4 


2 


2 


- 


1 


- 


July, . 


39 


25 


14 


11 


14 


3 


3 


5 


1 


1 


1 


- 


August, . 


59 


41 


18 


17 


19 


7 


4 


4 


4 


4 


- 


- 


September, . 


47 


32 


15 


7 


15 


5 


8 


4 


6 


1 1 


1 


- 




676 


470 


206 


181 


161 


116 


86 


56 


36 


22 


15 


3 



Statement No. 3. 

Detailed Account of Current Expenditures. 

Beans, 201 bushels, $376 60 

Beef (fresh), 44,100 pounds, ....... 3,488 60 

Books, newspapers, postage and stationery, ..•>••.. 283 57 

Carriages and harnesses, 285 35 

Cement, lime and plaster, ........ 141 52 

Clothing, . 1,086 22 

Coal, 514$ tons, 3,814 07 

Coffee, 3,230 pounds, 470 68 

Corn, 1,045 bushels, 1,245 93 

Dry goods,. 2,539 86 

Engine, 500 00 

Eggs, 92 dozen, 31 42 

Feed, 15 tons, 542 84 



24 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Fertilizers, $135 03 

Flour, 709 barrels, 5,000 17 

Fish (salt and fresh), 18,000 pounds, ...... 652 49 

Furniture, . 914 20 

Groceries, . 387 72 

Hardware, . . . " . . . . . . . . 669 82 

Hay (meadow), 2 \ tons, 35 09 

Labor, 4,591 06 

Leather, 76 23 

Livestock, 1,619 12 

Lumber, 1,297 34 

Malt, 22 44 

Meal (cotton-seed), 3 tons, 118 00 

Meats and provisions, 204 58 

Medicines, 200 72 

Miscellaneous, 536 95 

Molasses, 2,875 gallons, . . ." 1,462 45 

Oats, 225 bushels, 190 30 

Oil, 528 gallons, 328 27 

Paints, oils and colors, 62 05 

Pasturage, " 140 55 

Pepper, 100 pounds, 45 00 

Pease, 156 bushels, 248 95 

Repairs, 905 86 

Eice, 1,419 pounds, 232 99 

Salaries, 10,631 23 

Salt, 74 12 

Seeds, 91 21 

Shoes, 1,583 19 

Soap stock, 347 57 

Steam boiler, .......... 837 00 

Straw, 26 tons, 311 74 

Sugar, 2,373 pounds, 379 20 

Tea, 273 pounds, , . 237 30 

Tools, agricultural and mechanical, . . . . . . 769 72 

Transportation of freight, 777 48 

Transportation of passengers, 178 05 

Vinegar, 334 gallons, ......... 97 08 

Wooden ware, ...<...../,.-..-.. 160 48 

151,359 41 



1870.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



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1870.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



27 



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1870.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



29 



Statement No. 8. 
Products of the Farm. 



115 tons 


English hay. 


4 bushels 


beans. 


14 


K 


rowen. 


15 " 


pease (in pod.) 


10 


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millet. 


36 « 


sweet corn ears. 


9 


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2 " 


currants. 


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19 " 


cucumbers. 


30 tons 


green fodder. 


51 » 


tomatoes. 


2 


M 


winter squashes. 


34 " 


onions. 


315] 


rounds summer squashes. 


2 " 


quinces. 


1,810 


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water melons. 


150 " 


apples. 


400 


it 


muskmelons. 


2 « 


pears. 


30 


u 


garden seeds. 


542 « 


potatoes. 


600 


u 


pie plant. 


25 barrels 


winter apples. * 


1,233 


u 


veal. 


3,032 heads cabbage. 


3,418 


a 


beef. 


18,280 gallons 


milk. 


8,550 


u 


pork. 


25 cords wood. 


40 bushels parsnips. 


9,000 feet lumber. 


205 


a 


beets. 


56 pigs. 




200 


a 


English turnips. 


9 calves. 




400 


a 


mangel-wurzel. 


11 calfskins. 


300 


a 


ruta-bagas. 


200 rails. 




1 700 


a 


carrots. 


100 posts. 





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PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



31 



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1870.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25, 



33 



REPORT OF CHAPLAIN AND PRINCIPAL. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen : — I hereby submit to you my Annual Report of 
the changes which have occurred in the school during the past 
year, together with a statement of its present condition. The 
children have attended school regularly, with but few interrup- 
tions from sickness or other causes. The larger scholars con- 
tinue the practice of working half the day, and have made 
themselves quite useful in sewing, and in the performance of 
other light labor. 

The immediate care of the children devolves upon the follow- 
ing officers, under the direction of the Superintendent : 

One principal ; one assistant principal, in charge of boys out 
of school ; one female assistant, in charge of girls out of school ; 
six teachers ; one teacher of penmanship and music. 

Besides these, a supervisor has the care of the clothing and 
bedding of the boys, and the assistant matron of the almshouse 
attends to the wardrobe of the girls. An extra suit has been 
provided for each child, so that all can appear in holiday attire 
on special occasions. Particular attention is paid to the pro- 
motion of cleanliness and good health, and in physical condition 
we think the scholars will compare favorably with the children 
of any community or institution. 

The following is a tabular view of the number in school, the 
admissions and removals, record of attendance, &c. : — 

Number of Children admitted from Oct. 1, 1869, to Oct. 1. 1870. 



Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


From Monson State Almshouse, .... 

Westborough Reform School, .... 

Visiting Agent (through Almshouse), 

(direct), ..... 
Returned from places, 


119 
6 

18 
6 

48 


49 
29 


168 

6 

18 

6 

77 




197 


78 


275 



34 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Number of Children removed from, Oct. 1, 1869, to Oct. 1, 1870. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


To families, 

Died, ■• 

Eloped, 

Settlement, 

Discharged by Board of State Charities, 


95 
8 

10 
3 

46 


45 
5 
1 
5 

12 


140 
13 
11 

8 
58 




162 


68 


230 


Whole number of children October 1, 1869, 

Net gain during the year, 


225 
35 


62 
10 


287 
45 


Whole number of children September 30, 1870, . 


260 


72 


332 




318 


Record of Attendance in School. 




Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Number of children attending school Sept. 30, 1870, . 
Average attendance during the year, .... 
Number of different scholars during the year, 


234 
242 
415 


64 

58 

136 


298 

300 
551 


Average days of attendance for each scholar, . 
Average age of children, 


• 


• 


148 
9 yrs. 



Near the close of the last session of the legislature an Act 
was passed authorizing the State visiting agent to dispose of 
certain juvenile offenders, by placing them in this institution. 
Since June 15, the date of the approval of the Act, about 
thirty children of this class, between the ages of nine and six- 
teen, have been received by us. As a result of the introduction 
of this new element among those already under our care, the 
character of the school has been somewhat modified. Without 
presuming to discuss the advantages or disadvantages of the 
plan in its external bearings, I propose to consider merely a 
few points which more especially interest us in the work of 



1870.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 35 

educating and disciplining the children. The first topic that 
presents itself is — 

1. The Condition of the School as affected by the oper- 
ation of this New Law. 

The State Pritnary School, when first established, was in 
fact an offshoot of the almshouse. Its pupils had been paupers, 
or were the children of paupers. They were received directly 
from Tewksbury or Bridgewater, or from the Monson Alms- 
house, which is in many respects identical with the school. 
They were not committed by a magistrate, or sentenced by any 
court. They had been guilty of no offence, unless indeed 
vagrancy, consequent upon the neglect or criminality of the 
parents, is to be charged as a crime upon the child. Generally 
speaking, they were no more vicious in their tendencies than 
the same number of children would be, if taken indiscriminate- 
ly from the families in any city or town. On the other hand, 
they were perhaps the more readily influenced and the more 
easily governed, from the fact that they usually came from a 
stock, marked in no high degree by energy of character. 

In September, 1868, we received the first company of boys 
from the State Reform School at Westborough, and subse- 
quently other transfers were made from the same source. 
Among these, as might be expected, were some bad boys, and 
some stupid ones, but, coming in small numbers and at long 
intervals, they readily assimilated with the rest. The course 
of life in our community of three or four hundred boys and 
girls, always changing, yet in the main homogeneous, passed 
along pretty smoothly, without recourse to any very marked 
measures for the maintenance of order. In the department of 
instruction, we have endeavored to offer facilities to all under 
our care, for the acquirement of a common education, while in 
the training of the heart and the life, we have aimed to elevate 
their morals and improve their manners, so that we have some- 
times thought that we could boast of our good children, if we 
could not exhibit very smart ones. 

But the influx of juvenile offenders under the new law, 
threatened to disturb the established order of things. We 
feared the effect of introducing among the pupils an undisci- 
plined army of recruits, fresh from the associations of crime. 



36 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

It must be acknowledged that our apprehensions were not in 
all particulars well grounded, though the evil has to a consid- 
erable extent been felt. These boys come to us singly and in 
pairs, not in a large mass, so that according to the best strate- 
gic plan, we are able to take them in detail, giving each case 
special attention. Most of them are as filthy*in person as any 
pauper applicant. But the skilful application of soap, brush 
and comb will soon remedy this. If the moral taint can be as 
easily removed, and contamination avoided, the battle is not a 
serious one. 

It is not designed that the worst class of children shall be 
committed to us. Some of them are merely disobedient, not 
yielding to restraint at home. Others are guilty of small acts 
of dishonesty, while a few have been accomplices of older boys 
in the commission of greater offences. Fortunately for us, 
those above fourteen years of age, whose influence upon the 
school is most to be feared, tarry at the institution but a night 
or a few days at the most, on their way to the homes selected 
for them by the visiting agenj. A few boys have been sent 
back to their friends after a brief sojourn with us; but the 
greater part have become domiciliated for a term, or until they 
show signs of amendment. The first week after their arrival, 
is the season of trial for them, and of special perplexity to us. 
The most of them are homesick at the outset. Their first 
thought is to escape and go to their parents or friends whom 
they have left at home. Even the most constant vigilance will 
not prevent them from accomplishing this purpose in some in- 
stances ; for it is to be remembered that the institution was not 
designed as a penitentiary, nor are the buildings and premises 
fitted up with special reference to security in such cases. The 
escapes have been more numerous than usual during the past 
year, owing to the character of the boys with which we have 
had to deal. Some have run away several times, and have been 
returned. 

It will be seen from what has been said, that there has been 
considerable change in the material of our school since we pre- 
sented our last annual report. There is a more positive element 
in its structure. Rogues have the credit of smartness. They 
are quick to learn, and shrewd in action. Hence the intellec- 
tual grade of our scholars promises to be somewhat raised by 



1870.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 37 

these new accessions. If we can gain the confidence of these 
boys, and interest them in measures which are devised for their 
moral improvement, the task of reforming them will be a pleas- 
ant and hopeful one. How to accomplish this, is a study. I 
proceed to a second topic, growing out of the previous remarks 
on the condition of the school as affected by the operation of the 
new law, viz. : — 

2. The Methods of Discipline employed in the School. 

We start with the principle, that self-government guided by 
intelligence is the best for any community whether of men and 
women, or of children. There needs to be, of course, the germ 
of a healthy public sentiment, to sustain all acts looking to the 
general good. Carrying out this principle, the correctness of 
which we will not stop to discuss here, we have already adopted 
certain methods of discipline in the school, suggested by the 
exigencies of the case, which have thus far proved satisfactory. 
Mr. E. N. Montague, who for several years had been connected 
with the institution, formerly as teacher, and more recently as 
assistant principal, left us at the close of March, and as no 
suitable person appeared to fill his place, the experiment of self- 
government, in a restricted sense, was tried. Some of the most 
trustworthy boys were selected, and placed in charge of sections 
of the school, with power to promulgate rules, admonish, and 
report offenders to the principal, but with no authority to pun- 
ish. Rewards were offered for exemplary conduct, and positions 
of trust given to those who especially deserved such honor. The 
plan worked well, so far that the general order was improved, 
and the necessity for a resort to severe punishment became less 
frequent. A healthy public sentiment was generated. It be- 
came popular to do right. The new boys soon found this out. 
After two or three attempts, they ceased to talk openly about 
running away, even if they secretly meditated the plan. Some 
of the more prevalent bad habits, such as swearing, quarrelling 
and the like, were also suppressed in this way. 

Having continued this method for a time, we were ready for 
an advance in the way of organizing more perfectly the moral 
force gathered on the side of truth. For this purpose, a society 
of the children was formed, denominated the " Band of the Tried 
and True," whose name indicates the character of the boys and 



38 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

girls who compose it. Each member is pledged to abstain from 
lying, stealing, swearing and kindred vices, and also not to use 
intoxicating drinks or tobacco. They bind themselves to do 
right, and uphold the right by discountenancing evil. They are 
admitted to the privileges of membership, by a form* of initia- 
tion prepared especially for the purpose. Associated with the 
" Band " is a Council composed of the teachers and officers of 
the school, and all cases of the violation of pledges are brought 
before a standing committee on discipline. The penalty is 
deprivation, for a time, of the privileges of membership. The 
utmost good feeling prevails in connection with this organiza- 
tion, and since all who aim to do well are eligible for a position 
in the society, considerable enthusiasm is awakened to prove 
themselves worthy of the honor. 

The result of this method of discipline has been, thus far, 
all that could be desired. The children are made better by it. 
Boys of bad reputation have become good, for the time being, 
at least. In many instances, there appears to have been a re- 
markable quickening of the moral sense, as illustrated in the 
desire to do right even in the smallest particulars. The labor 
of those who have the care of the children is lightened. Cor- 
poral punishment in its severer forms, is scarcely ever needed. 
We believe in the privilege of using the rod, as a reserve power 
for teachers when other means fail, but whatever punishment is 
administered, it should be in kindness and with an aim to the 
good of the child. 

These remarks upon the discipline employed in the school, so 
far as they relate to the moral training of the pupils, may be 
considered as the substance of my report as Chaplain. My 
preaching on the Sabbath is only an auxiliary to these other 
week-day labors. The children are instructed in Christian 
living, rather than in Christian doctrine, although the funda- 
mental truths of the Bible are ever kept before them. We look 
for divine help to make the seed sown abundant in the fruitage. 
I will close with a few thoughts upon a third topic, viz. : — 

3. Our Progress and Aim. 
Every friend of the orphaned and neglected, can but rejoice 
at the change which is gradually being made in the administra- 
tion of our public charities to these unfortunate classes. Dur- 



1870. j public document—No. 25. 39 

ing the seven years that I have been connected with Tewks- 
bury and Monson, I am sure that progress has been made, both 
in public sentiment as evinced by legislation, and also in methods 
of management in particular cases. One great object that has 
been attained is the separation of the children from other de- 
pendent classes, and this separation should, in my estimation, 
be made as complete as possible. 

Another improvement is in the mode in which the children 
are treated. I can remember when the personal condition and 
habits of the scholars, — then under my direction during school 
hours only, — were so directed, that teachers were obliged almost 
to hold their pupils at arm's length to avoid infection. No 
officer was secure from vermin unless he carefully guarded 
himself from contact with the inmates. The record of absences 
from school was largely affected by the prevalence of itch and 
sore eyes. A great reform in these particulars was accomplished 
by the present Superintendent, during the first year of his ad- 
ministration, and in every respect the habits of the children 
have changed. They have thrown off their shy, reserved ways, 
and have become companionable for older persons, — more like 
the children in our homes. 

We hope to make the institution resemble, more and more, a 
home. It is our aim. To do this, the children must be kept 
clean and well-dressed ; their diet must be wholesome and well 
prepared, so that good health may be preserved ; they must be 
taught as far as possible the refinements of society, as well as 
the common things of life ; in short, those who have the care of 
them, must be brought in close contact with them, mind to 
mind, heart to heart, constituting one family and one house- 
hold, characterized by good order, and at the same time by the 
most cordial sympathy among its members. 

With devout thankfulness to the Father of all, for whatever 

progress has been made in providing for these little ones of his 

! flock, and with a sincere aim and purpose to do what is possible 

for their further improvement, physical, intellectual, and spirit- 

1 ual, I present to you this Annual Report. 

CHARLES F. FOSTER. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. 



.No. 25. 



EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL EEPOET 



IJSTSPECTOES 



OF THE 



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M O .N" S O N" 



October, 18 71. 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS 
79 Milk Street (corner of Federal). 

1872. 



€ommontomltl) of JUaasacljusetta, 



INSPECTORS' REPORT. 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Council. 

With the year closing September 30, 1871, we present our 
Annual Report. 

With this institution the year has been one of general pros- 
perity, and the beneficent purposes of the State have been 
actively carried forward. 

The improvements in the buildings and grounds, commenced 
three years ago, have been continued the past year. The old 
barn and sheds have been raised, new sills and floors put in, 
and they are now nearly as good as new. 

More new floors have been laid in the main building, and the 
chapel has been improved with new and better seating accom- 
modations. A new coal-house, an ice-house and several smaller 
buildings, useful and essential to the comfort of the State's 
family here, have been constructed, and the grounds about the 
buildings considerably improved by grading and drainage. 

The steam-heating arrangements for all the buildings occu- 
pied by officers and inmates, with the exception of the children's 
play-houses, which are too far from the boilers to be heated by 
them, will be completed this autumn. 

The system for warming works admirably, making the school- 
rooms and other apartments comfortable in the coldest weather. 
The work of putting in steam has been under the superintend- 
ence of John N. Lacy, our engineer, who has performed this 
labor in addition to his other duties. 



4 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

The amount of the appropriation for warming purposes unex- 
pended at the time of making our last report was 84,233.67. 
Now on hand, $1,216.01, which will be used to complete the 
work. 

The appropriation for laundry and other purposes has all 
been expended. From it have been purchased the most ap- 
proved washing machines and wringer, with other conveniences 
that make a first-class laundry. Farming operations have been 
carried on quite vigorously. Several acres of unproductive 
land have been brought under cultivation, a hundred rods of 
wall put up, and a good many rocks and boulders removed from 
the soil. 

The hay crop, by which our supply of milk is gauged, amounts 
to 127 J tons, besides over forty tons of corn and green fodder. 
The potato crop, which was a failure last year, has yielded 
3,000 bushels this year. Of milk, an essential article of food 
for the children, 25,140 gallons have been produced. 

The total products of the farm (in addition to what had been 
consumed before taking the inventory) are estimated at 
$7,340 12, an amount indicating profitableness in State farming ; 
but when we take into consideration the amount invested in 
land, stock, agricultural tools, &c, together with the cost of 
help, for this is an institution mainly for children, who cannot 
do much at farming, the " profits " are not so apparent. 

When the Almshouse was established, a farm seemed neces- 
sary to keep employed the large number of male inmates who 
were here the year round. A change in the Almshouse system, 
by which this class of laborers is rendered very small, removes 
this original necessity and suggests the propriety of disposing 
of a portion of the two hundred acres which constitute the area 
of the farm. 

We are not prepared, however, to recommend at this time 
the sale of any number of these acres. Yet, as an economical 
measure, it is worthy of careful consideration. 

The number of inmates in the Almshouse department, October 
1, 1870, was . 55 

Admitted since, by permits, transfers from other institu- 
tions and births, 687 

Total, 742 



1871.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 5 

Transferred to the Primary School, .... 192 
Discharged, eloped and died, . . . . . 484 

Total, 676 

Average number through the year, . . . . 87 

Now in the Almshouse, 66 

Men, 14 

Women, ... 29 

Boys, 11 

Girls, 12 

Number in the Primary School department, October 1 , 

1870, 332 

Admitted during the year, . . . . . . 275 

Total, . . .607 

Average number through the year, . . . .335 
Placed out in families, discharged, deserted and died, . 252 

Number now in the School, 355 

Boys, 273 

Girls, 82 

Average number supported in both departments, . . 422 
Cost per week for each inmate, basing it on the amount 

drawn from the treasury for current expenses, . . $2 35 
Whole number of admissions since opening the institu 

tion, 19,301 

It will be seen that the average number of inmates in the 
Almshouse department has been less than last year, and under 
the arrangements of transfer made by the Board of State Char- 
ities, the number must continue to decrease till the institution 
becomes what it should be — a school for dependent children. 
All the arguments we have used in previous reports, in favor of 
abolishing the Almshouse department, still hold good, and the 
necessity for it continues. 

Town and city authorities continue to send vagrants here, 
instead of committing them directly to the workhouse, as they 



ALMSHOUSE AT MOXSOX. [Oct. 

should do. and thus avoid the expense and trouble of a second 
transfer. This evil is twin to that of sending sick and dying 
persons to the Almshouse, while the laws forbid it and provide 
for their care in other ways. 

We thoroughly believe in the principles of personal liberty and 
deprecate any system that forces those seeking charity of the 
State to remain in the Almshouse, when it is apparent that 
fhej can take care of themselves : hence we favor the discharge 
of every inmate who is capable of self-support. 

The Primary School continues to occupy our chief attention. 
Rev. Mr. Foster is still its principal. His labors abound with 
devices for interesting, pleasing and improving the children. 

During the year. 567 different pupils have been in the school. 
and the average attendance has been 309. Average age of 
pupils. 9 years. 

There have been received from the Tewksbury Almshouse 
78 children, and from the Visiting Agency, E 

~e continue to put our boys and girls into families, believing 
that they are better off in the household than in any public in- 
stitution, although it is frequently necessary to retain them 
awhile for discipline. One hundred and seventy-one boys and 
girls have been placed out during the year — 120 boys, 51 girls. 
C : B3 who returned from places, 52 were boys and 31 girls. 

With all the care it is possible to exercise in the selection of 
homes, children will sometimes find unsuitable places. Indeed, 
the class of families rated as ;i gilt-edged" do not always fur- 
nish the best homes for our children. The children have faults, 
natural and acquired, and it is not easy to find families willing 
to bear with them as they can with the short-comings of their 
own children. 

Experience has shown that the only way to secure the 
children suitable homes is to find the best we can and try them. 
A child is sometimes transferred half a dozen times before find- 
ing its proper place, and this plan of adapting children to fami- 
lies is important to both. 

The Visiting Agency is invaluable in the care of our children 
after leaving the school. It prevents their abuse, reconciles 
differences between children and masters, arrests runaways, and 
= ::e :he pan of u good angel" to the children wherever they 



1871.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



The boys and girls saved from the reformatories of the State 
by this agency, and sent here for discipline and education, have 
in most cases proved no worse than the children received from 
other sources, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the law 
which has befriended them. 

The transfer of infirm and ailing inmates to the Tewksbury 
Almshouse has kept our hospital in a pretty healthy condition. 
It has been full but once, and then only for a day. 

Number of admissions to the hospital, 389 ; number of births, 
7 ; number of deaths, 18. Of the latter, three were boys, mem- 
bers of the Primary School. 



Inventory of 1871. 



Real Estate, — 



210A acres land ; viz., 26J acres of woodland, and 



284 acres of tillage, pasturage < 


and unpro- 




ductive, .... 


» . . 


$16,778 69 


Buildings, .... 


. . . 


102,070 00 

$118,848 69 


Personal Estate, — 






Live stock, 


$5,798 00 




Products of farm, . 


7,340 12 




Machinery and mechanical tools, 


10,416 25 




Carriages and agricultural tools, 


2,933 25 




Beds and bedding (inmates' depart- 






ment), 


6,763 56 




Other property (inmates' department). 


4,718 53 




Personal property (Superintendent'!: 






department), . 


6,419 43 




Keady-made clothing, boots, shoes 


> 




&c, 


5,782 15 




Dry goods, .... 


1,383 95 




Groceries and provisions, . 


2,969 73 




Drugs and medicines, 


. 415 87 




Fuel, 


6,813 30 




Library and school-books, . 


359 48 




Total personal property, 




62,113 62 




Total real and personal estate, 


. . • 


$180,962 31 



ALMSHOUSE AT MOXSOX 



[Oct. 



Officers axd tttfjh Salaries. 

Horace P. Wakefield. Superintendent and Physician, 
Charles F, Foster. As s'f- Superintendent, Chaplain 

and Principal, .... 
John N. Lacy. En^i ;ee>\ 
Henry J. Moulron" OV. 
Geoige H. Fisherdick, Farmer, 
Horatio H. Fisherdick. Assistant-Farmer 
George W. Cobb, Baker, 
Gordon Chapman. Cook, inmates' depa : nent. 
Uriah Manning, Supervisor, . 
Justin Cristy, Supervisor, 
Geirge H. Stone, Watchman, . 
Mary E. ~~:£7:leld, JIatron, . 
S'lsaL C. Yarrington, Assistant-Matron, 
Harriet E. D arte. Teacher, 
Jennie W. Goddard, Teacher, . 
Hannie L Hill. Teacher. 
Fannie M. Lamson. Teacher, . 
MaryE. Marsh, TeacJu . 
Essie F. Stron g . R oe I g . 
Mary E. Win, Teacher, . 
Miry W, Richmond, Lamndress, 
Charlotte A. St. John. 5: .-■:;: f.55. . 
Nancv M. Foster, Xi se. 






. 1.-2: 


. l^oc ::■ 


. 500 


00 


. 600 


00 


. 540 00 


. 624 00 


. 480 


00 


. 360 


M 


, £60 00 


, S60 


:: 


. 300 


00 


. 300 00 


. 250 


00 


. 250 


00 


. 250 


00 


. 250 00 


. 250 


00 


. 250 


00 


. 250 00 


. 250 


00 


. 250 


00 


. 250 





I>-5?ZCI035. 

Gordon M. Fisk, 8160 00 

Eieazar Porter, 160 

Thomas Rice 160 00 



The annexed report of the Superintendent and Physician ex- 
hibits a detailed account of expenses, with other matters that 
may be interesting to re a 1 . 

The report of the Chaplain and Principal of the School re- 
lates in a concise manner what has been accomplished in his 
department. 



1871.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 9 

The several officers, superior and subordinate, have performed 
their respective duties faithfully. We desire to make special 
mention of Dr. Wakefield, the Superintendent, and Mrs. Wake- 
field, the Matron, to whose labors and watchfulness the institu- 
tion owes its present success. 

G. M. FISK, 
ELEAZAR PORTER, 
THOMAS RICE, 

Inspectors, 

State Primary School and Almshouse, 
Monson, Oct. 1, 1871. 



10 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT AND PHYSICIAN. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School at Monson. 

Gentlemen : — The following is a detailed account of the 
receipts and expenditures of this institution, and also the 
changes and improvements made in and around our premises 
during the current year. 

Receipts. 
Cash received from unexpended appropriation of 1870, 819,697 52 
Cash received from annual appropriation of 1871, . 31,972 49 
Cash received from special appropriation for laundry- 
purposes, 2,945 41 

Cash received from special appropriation for steam- 
heating, 3,017 66 

Cash received from special appropriation for general 
repairs, 3,620 42 

Receipts from all appropriations, .... $61,253 50 
Receipts from all other sources, 29 02 

Total receipts, $61,282 52 

Expenditures. 

Salaries, $10,669 97 

Labor, 5,269 85 

Total for salaries and labor, .... $15,939 82 

Meats, . $4,035 85 

Fish, 521 40 

Flour, 5,432 50 

Grain and meal, 3,042 73 

Tea and coffee, 618 29 

Sugar and molasses, 1,532 56 



1871.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 11 

Eggs, . . . $59 94 

Other provisions, 1,448 49 

Total for provisions and supplies, . $16,691 76 

Clothing, . . $2,164 38 

Fuel and lights, ...... 5,284 63 

Medicines, . . . . . . . 137 12 

Dry goods, beds and bedding, . . . 3,784 92 

Transportation, 833 55 

Repairs, 1,935 97 

Books, &c, 345 22 

Hardware, < 532 65 

Furniture, 1,053 98 

Gristmill, 140 00 

Watch clock, 75 00 

Live stock, 370 84 

All other expenses, . . . . . 2,380 17 

19,038 43 

Total current expenditures, , $51,670 01 

Cash paid from special appropriation for laundry- 
purposes, 2,945 41 

Cash paid from special appropriation for steam-hea*ting, 3,017 66 

Cash paid from special appropriation for repairs, . 3,620 42 

Total expenditures, $61,253 50 

Cash paid into State treasury, . . . . . 29 02 

Total cash payments, $61,282 52 

Whole number in the Almshouse October 1, 1870, . . 55 

Admitted during the year, 680 

Births, 7, 

Total, . . .742 

Whole number discharged, 391 

deserted, 78 

transferred to Primary School, . .192 

died, 15 

676 

Whole number remaining October 1, 1870, . . .66 



12 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

As follows : Men, 14 

Women, 29 

Total adults, . . . . . . 43 

Boys, 11 

Girls, 12 

Total children, 23 

Total adults and children, 66 

The average number supported in the Almshouse for the 
year ending October 1, 1871, is . . . . . .87 

The average number supported in the Primary School is . 335 

The average number supported in both departments, is . 422 

The increase of value of real estate the current year is 
$2,685, and the increase of the personal assets is $9,532.95 ; 
making an increase in the total valuation of $12,217.95. 
Although there has been an increase in several departments, it 
is but fair to state, that a large increase has been occasioned by 
the increased value of the new machinery in the boiler, engine 
and mill rooms, obtained in the main from special appropria- 
tions. 

The expenditures for the current year are $51,670.01. If 
this sum be divided by the average number of inmates, it will 
give a cost of $2.35 per week for each person. 

On the 8th of October we let steam on our buildings for the 
first time, but it was November 5th before we fired up with 
coal and heated the whole institution. From this time we 
were warm, and it was the first winter we have been comfort- 
able since we have been here. On cold, windy days, we 
formerly had to dismiss our schools because we could not make 
the children comfortable in the school-rooms. Last winter there 
was no day so cold or so windy that either the teachers or 
children were discommoded. 

The main supply, instead of running through our cellars, 
and heating what we wanted to preserve cool, passes through 
the top of each school-room, furnishing heat where it is needed. 
The main is wound with felting, covered with canvas and 
painted, so that it does not injure the appearance of the 
rooms. Each school-room is provided with a duct, communi- 
cating with the pure air outside, and opening under the radia- 



1871.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 13 

tor thereof. This pure air rises through the coils of pipe, and 
being heated, is diffused through the room. On the opposite 
side, at the bottom of each room, there is communication with 
a chimney, which takes off the carbonic acid gas and other 
impurities generated in such rooms. This ingress and egress 
is regulated by dampers, and a pure, healthy and comfortable 
air can always be present. 

Every room of the establishment is heated, and many of the 
entries, giving us a mild atmosphere through the buildings. 

The buildings are piped so that steam can be let on and shut 
off from the hospital and each wing, and also from each story. 
This can be done by the engineer, without leaving the boiler- 
room. 

The circulation of steam is so easy and perfect that it is per- 
ceptible at the farthest point from the boiler, having traversed 
more than 500 feet, although the steam-gauge on the boiler 
stands at zero. 

The water that supplies the institution, from the hill west of 
us, is sufficiently high to feed our boilers by gravitation, against 
a pressure of seventeen pounds of steam to the square inch. 
When we carry a greater pressure, we have to rely on our 
pumps for supplying our boilers. 

The water from both our reservoirs and our well is brought 
to the boiler-room, and thence, under the eye of the engineer, 
is distributed to the wash-room, cook-room, hospital and the 
various parts of the house. 

Formerly, our hot water was obtained from a tank, which 
was heated by live steam direct from our boilers. This was 
expensive. Now, our water is heated by passing through a 
heater in rear of our boilers, through coils of pipe in the chim- 
ney, and also by passing through a double cylinder in contact 
with the exhaust steam from our engine and force-pump. 
Thus the heat, after it leaves our boilers, is utilized in heating 
our water, and the exhaust steam is made to do the same work 
that was formerly done by direct steam. When our engine is 
at work, we never have to use direct steam, unless some unu- 
sual demand, like bathing, &c, is made upon us. 

We always have hot water in greater or less quantities, 
because we keep our fires running night and day in winter, 



14 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

and bank them in summer, never letting them out unless we 
change from one boiler to another. 

Through the coldest weather of winter, we run three boilers, 
doing our work, cooking and heating with a pressure of about 
25 pounds of steam. During the milder weather we use one 
boiler for power and cooking, and another for heating, at a 
pressure of from 1 to 15 pounds. 

In the heating process, the working is so easy and perfect, 
that condensed steam, some of it making a circuit of more than 
1,100 feet, returns to the boilers with so little loss, that we have 
frequently run them for more than a week without supplying 
them with a single drop of water. 

While the boilers doing the heating will supply themselves 
for so long time, the one furnishing power has to be replenished 
every few minutes by a pump. To meet this demand with hot 
water instead of cold (for nothing injures and strains a boiler 
more than pumping cold water into it, unless it is pumping 
in none at all), we have set another cylinder, through which is 
pumped the water supplying the boilers, and which is also heated 
by the exhaust steam from the pump doing the same work. 
Thus is utilized and economized all the heat generated by the 
consumption of our fuel. 

When we advocated, before the committee of the legislature, 
the importance of heating this institution by steam, the need, 
the safety, &c, we were listened to, and the appropriation made 
for these reasons alone ; but our appeals made for reasons of 
economy were regarded as visionary, and made impressions like 
the idle wind. 

We felt positive that it was economical and were willing to 
stand by the record. Here is the proof. These are the facts : 

From January 1st to October 1st, we weighed 

the coal and consumed 252 tons. 

From January 1st to February 25th, we ran three 
boilers, and the average consumption per day 



4,250 

From February 25th to April 1st, we ran two 

boilers, with an average daily consumption of . 2,980 
From April 1st to June 1st, we ran two boilers 
part of the day, with an average daily consump- 
tion of 1,548 



1871.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 15 

From June 1st we ran one boiler, with an average 

daily consumption of 570 lbs. 

Average daily consumption for nine months, . 1,850 " 
At this rate we have consumed in the year, for 

power, heating and cooking, .... 337J tons. 

Coal on hand October 1st, 1870, . . 585J tons. 
Coal on hand October 1st, 1871, . . 205 " 



— 3801 tons. 
Consumed in boilers, 337J " 



Balance, . . . . ... . 43 tons. 

This would leave 43 tons, and the difference between long 
tons and 2,000 pounds, as calculated for consumption in our 
boilers, 40 J tons, making 83 J tons for consumption in our 
laundry, kitchen, play-rooms, men's ward and hospital kitchen. 

When we were running the old furnace and the sixty fires 
then on the premises, we were consuming from 500 to 600 tons 
per year, and at times more than 600 tons. 

As soon as we vacated the old boiler, engine and mill rooms, 
we proceeded to fit up the rooms for laundry purposes. In the 
engine-room we placed two machines, called the " Hydraulic 
Clothes-washer." These machines are cylindrical, making 15 
revolutions per minute, horizontally, in a tub to which are ad- 
mitted cold and hot water, and steam. They were represented 
by parties that had substituted them for the Shaker and other 
machines, as the best the market afforded. They are used in 
washing the officers' clothes, and do well, but the original cost, 
$400 apiece, is high, and the construction is such that we fear 
repairs on them may be a large item. The wringer, called a 
Hydro-Extractor, manufactured by Rice, Barton & Fales* Ma- 
chine & Iron Co., is a perfect success, wringing clothes of all 
kinds dryer than can be done in any other way, and doing it 
with no wear or strain on the fabric. The laundry is provided 
with soapstone tubs, and a hundred-gallon iron kettle for mak- 
ing soap. The piping for hot and cold water is made of the 
seamless brass tube. 

But the washing machine, par excellence, — the one that does 
the work expeditiously, thoroughly and economically, — is one 
after the pattern caricatured in a former report, as a 



16 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

" Monster of such hideous mien, 
That to be hated needs but to be seen." 

But it is only fair to quote the remaining couplet : 

" But seen too oft, familiar with its face, 
We first endure, then pity, then embrace," 

because it has been verified in this case. We admit that we 
have been captivated, not by its beauties, for we still think the 
best delineation we have ever seen of it is given by Yirgil in 
describing the Cyclops, 

" Monstrum horrendum ingens, cui lumen ademptum." 

For a long time, while it was merely paddling in dirty water, 
we endured its short-comings ; then, thinking it a great pity 
that its room should be worth more than its service, we cast 
about to see how it might be turned to some good account. On 
investigation, we found it had more good parts than its reviler. 
Although nothing can be said in its favor, judging from appear- 
ances merely, we have constructed a new machine, and, after 
further experience with it, will admit that it has great merit, 
and cordially embrace, not the machine, but the principles 
involved in its construction. 

So much for impressions ; now for the facts. 

The machine is a cylinder, 6 feet in diameter, 5 feet in length, 
making 10 revolutions per minute, with 5 buckets on the inside. 
After the clothes are placed in the cylinder, and the cylinder is 
in motion, water, hot or cold, and steam can be admitted 
through the axis on which it revolves. As the cylinder revolves, 
the clothes are carried up on the buckets, from which they fall, 
and the water and steam permeate the whole texture of the 
fabric, eliminating the dirt therefrom while falling from the 
buckets. After going through the cylinder, the dirtiest gar- 
ments are cleansed and need no further rubbing by hand. It 
wears the garment less, and leaves it cleaner than is common 
when washed by hand. It will wash 120 sheets, 150 men's 
shirts, 200 boys' shirts or 50 blankets, per hour. One man 
and a boy, with this machine, will do more work, and do it 
better, working 4 days of the week 5 hours per day, than can 
10 women, working 6 days of the week 10 hours per day. 

As early in the spring as we had eaten the hay from our 



1871.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. IT 

barn, and could turn out our cattle, we raised our old barn 
three feet, and dug a cellar under the same, After raising it 
from the bed where it was originally planted, we found the sills 
so rotten that the whole bottom had to be replaced with new 
timber. To do this, it was necessary to take out the stables, 
stalls, and all the partitions. The stalls on the west side have 
all been made new ; the stables for horses have been recon- 
structed ; stalls for oxen have been built where was formerly 
a bay, and water has been introduced to the barn, so that both 
horses and oxen can be watered without leaving the stable. 
The shed in front of the barn, and the carriage-house adjoining, 
the walls of which were in a dilapidated condition, were raised 
with the barn, and the walls properly secured. Last autumn 
we constructed stalls in the basement of the new barn, so that 
within both barns we have provided room for 32 cows more 
than before, and can now accommodate a stock of 83 head of 
horses and cattle. 

We have produced the current year more than 25,000 gallons 
of milk. 

When I entered on the duties of Superintendent, we had 
some grade Durham cows and some grade Ayrshires. Some of 
each kind were good milkers. A record of the quantity of milk 
given by each cow at each milking is kept, so that the quantity 
given by each cow can be known for any week or month, or for 
the year. These records we compared till we became satisfied 
that for milk, which is the staple wanted at this establishment, 
taking everything into consideration, the Ayrshire cow is the 
better machine for converting a given amount of provender into 
the article of milk. 

When fully convinced that such was the fact, we purchased a 
full-blooded Ayrshire bull and two cows, intending to stock the 
farm with grades and full-bloods as fast as our herd needs 
replenishing. Since purchasing these cows, they have each 
dropped a calf, so that we now have a herd of five thorough- 
bred Ayrshires. 

In the erection of our engine-house, we made provision for a 
grain-room and corn-mill. 

This room will hold two car-loads of corn, and the meal after 
it is ground. From this room the grain falls to the mill in the 
basement, and when ground, is carried by an elevator to the 
3 



18 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

room whence it started. We exchanged a vertical mill for a 
horizontal one of the same size, for $140, because we found it 
would cost much less to apply our power to a horizontal mill ; 
it would grind faster, and would also take less power. We can, 
with greater ease, grind 15 bushels per hour with the new mill, 
than we could 10 bushels with the old one. 

On the 22d of October, we commenced to use our new engine, 
by which we are enabled to do our work with a much less press- 
ure of steam than was possible with the old one. 

Just before winter set in, we constructed a coal-shed by 
throwing a roof over the space between the carpenter's shop and 
laundry. This, with the cellar of the carpenter's shop adjoin- 
ing, affords us room for the storage of about 600 tons of coal. 
Access to the same when depositing the coal is convenient, and 
when stored, it is handy to the boiler-house, where the largest 
part of it is consumed. 

In the early part of winter, we erected an ice-house on the 
border of the pond made last season, 30 feet by 22, with 15- 
feet posts. In this we stored 250 tons of ice, hoisting the same 
from the water to the building. 

After haying, we erected a privy for the boys, 30 feet by 9, 
and in the rear of it a building 30 feet by 12, large enough to 
hold dry earth sufficient to deodorize the deposits for a long 
time. 

We have also turned the water from our laundry, conveying 
it through the vault of the women's privy, which washes and 
carries away much that is offensive, depositing the same on our 
land a long distance from our buildings. 

We have erected a small building over our reservoir on the 
hill, as a gate house, so that we can control the water at the 
fountain without interference from any evil-minded person who 
might chance to pass that way. 

We have also erected a smoke-house, so that we can cure our 
ham without at the same time curing ourselves, or raising an 
alarm that our premises are all on fire. 

We have purchased one of Buerk's watch clocks, by which 
we are enabled to know the precise time when the watchman 
visits the different departments of the institution, and where 
he is at any given time of the night. It is a decided improve- 
ment on the old clocks, the apparatus of which was constantly 



1871.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 19 

deranged, and upon which no reliance could be placed. The 
watch cost 175, but at this price we regard it a good investment. 

We have relaid the floors in several more of our wards since 
our last report, and shall continue the same till all have been 
done. 

Our chapel was supplied partly with settees and partly with 
wooden benches. The old settees have been repainted and a 
supply sufficient to seat the room has been purchased, so that 
it will now compare favorably with such rooms in almost any 
community. 

By the erection of the engine-house, coal-shed and grist-mill, 
it became necessary to make an open road to these buildings. 
This we have constructed and fenced, thus gaining a spacious 
yard for the accommodation of the new buildings. To connect 
with this, we have extended the way that was partially opened 
a year or two since, by which we have a drive-way in front of 
the main buildings. On this way has been erected a light fence, 
inclosing the orchard and lawn in front of the establishment. 
The lawn west of the chapel and school-rooms has also been 
inclosed with a similar fence. These avenues are convenient 
and useful, add to the beauty of the premises, and tend, with 
the surroundings, to make the home more cheerful and pleasant. 

During the winter, we kept the tramps, who came in from 
the highways to have a good time generally, employed in 
digging, drilling, blasting, hauling and laying stone, as a kind of 
pastime, so that they might be kept vigorous, and ready in early 
spring to take up their annual round, seeking what they might 
devour. In this way, with help to give directions and see that 
they did not " vamose the ranche" we cleared about nine 
acres of stone, and inclosed it with a six-foot heavy wall. We 
also cut off the wood from one-half acre of land, cleared the 
same and converted it to pasture. 

Since haying, we have cleared two acres of rocky, bushy 
pasture and ploughed the same. 

We have completed the wall around the yard at the new 
barn, laid culverts, and built, from time to time, more than one 
hundred rods of heavy wall. 

We have also turned the water out of our barn-cellars, think- 
ing it more healthy for the cattle to be above water, and just 
as well for the water as to be under cover. 



20 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

All the products of the farm are above mediocrity. No crop 
has suffered, except the hay. The first crop was injured by the 
dry weather in May, but it has been made up by the crop of 
rowen, so that both crops equal those of last year, minus one 
and a half tons. 

The boys have been made useful in planting potatoes, weed- 
ing vegetables, picking strawberries, pulling weeds, gathering 
stones, grubbing thistles, breaking sumachs, cutting brakes, 
sprouting birches and harvesting roots. 

All are ready and anxious to try their hand at anything. 
Trained to activity in school, they are not sluggish when in the 
fields, but engage in this labor with fun and frolic, thus work- 
ing off their surplus vitality ; and when released from the 
monotony of the play-grounds, regard these opportunities as 
relaxation and pastime. 

The medical department has been under the care of the 
undersigned during the whole of the current year. The dis- 
eases have been generally of a mild type, although several cases 
of severe fracture have been sent here, in flagrant violation of 
the statute in such cases made and provided. Some towns 
have always been doing this since we have been connected 
with these institutions ; and although provision is made by 
law for reimbursing the towns in such cases when application 
is made, they will still, unless a more stringent law is enacted, 
outrage every principle of humanity, and being soulless, will 
continue to 

" Rattle his bones 
Over the stones, 
He's only a pauper that nobody owns." 

In February, a singular epidemic broke out among our boys, 
and scattering cases occurred for several weeks. In many 
cases the symptoms were very grave, and occasioned great fear 
that the attack might prove fatal. The cases were attended 
with high fever, intense thirst, irritable stomach, deranged liver 
and with great prostration. All these cases terminated favor- 
ably. 

On the 16th of August, soon after eating a hearty breakfast, 
almost all the children in the institution were seized with vomit- 
ing, not more than twenty escaping. In many cases the vomit- 



1871.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



21 



ing continued through the day, followed with purging. A few 
were much prostrated, with livid countenances, cold extremities 
and watery discharges ; symptoms strongly resembling those in 
Asiatic cholera. 

In the course of the next day, all urgent symptoms disap- 
peared, and after a day or two more, all regained their 
usual vigor. The day was sultry and oppressive, and so was 
the day before. The breakfast for the children was hashed 
meat, of which they partook with a good relish. It was pre- 
pared in the afternoon of the day previous, of the same mate- 
rials which they had eaten for dinner. It was mixed and 
remained in a covered vessel till the next morning, when it was 
warmed, but not scalded. 

During the time intervening between the preparation and 
the partaking thereof, partial decomposition had taken place ; 
some noxious element was generated which knew no law when 
pent up in the stomach, regarded no ordinary rules of decorum, 
and impatient of restraint, eliminated itself through each most 
facile and direct avenue, and took French leave without so 
much as saying, with your permission. 

Whole number of admissions to the hospital during the year, 
389 ; average number, 40. 

Whole number of births, 7. There were two pairs of twins, 
and two were still-born. Six children were illegitimate, — 1 
male, 5 females. Two mothers were born in Massachusetts, 
one in Connecticut and four in Ireland. 

Whole number of births since the opening of the institution, 
376 ; male, 169 ; females, 207. 





TABLE < 


DF DEATHS. 






Under 1 year, 




> • . < 


2 


Between 1 and 5, . 










. . « 


2 


5 and 10, . 










. • . , 


1 


10 and 20, 










• • 


2 


20 and 30, 










, . , 


2 


30 and 40, 










» . ' . « 


4 


40 and 50, 










• - . . 


1 


50 and 60, 










» . . 


4 


Total, . 












. 18 



22 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Whole number deaths since the opening of the institution, 
1,065, — males 559, females 506. The whole number of deaths 
for the year is 18, — males 12, females 6. Three were members 
of the Primary School, all males. One died of pneumonia, 
having been feeble for a long time with a scrofulous diathesis. 
One died in a fit, and the other passed to the " sleep that knows 
no waking" without a struggle or a groan, in his bed in the 
ward with his fellows, where he retired at night in his usual 
health. 

For whatever success has attended us the current year, we 
are in a marked degree indebted to the teachers and officers for 
the interest they take in our plans, for the zeal they manifest 
in the execution of them, and for the alacrity with which they 
strive to do their duties to the institution and the Common- 
wealth. 

To you, gentlemen, we are grateful for the confidence you 
have shown in permitting us to mature our plans without your 
dictation, and execute them with your approval. 

For all the blessings vouchsafed during the year to the insti- 
tution and the Commonwealth, we acknowledge our obligations 
to that kind Providence which so constantly and so vigilantly 
watches over the interests of all. 

HORACE P. WAKEFIELD, 

Superintendent and Physician. 

Monson, October 1, 1871. 



1871.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



23 



Statement No. 1. 

Nativity of Inmates received in the Almshouse during the year ending September 

30,1871. 



Massachusetts, .... 247 


Sweden, . 


. 4 


Other States, . 






110 


Other foreign countries, . 


7 


Ireland, . 






183 


Unknown, 


. 13 


England, . 






58 


At sea, .... 


1 


British Provinces, 






32 







Germany, 






19 


Total, . . 


. 687 


Scotland, . 






13 







Of the number received, there were from- 



Palmer, 


209 


Deerfield and Montague, 3 




Visiting Agent Board of State 




each, 


21 


Charities, . . . . 


90 


General Agent Board of State 




State Almshouse, Tewksbury, . 


78 


Charities, .... 


3 


Worcester, . 


49 


Cheshire, Holden, Lee, North 




Springfield, . 


42 


Brookfield and Uxbridge, 2 




Monson, 


34 


each, 


10 


State Almshouse, Bridgewater, . 


28 


Agawam, Athol, Belchertown, 




State Primary School, 


21 


Blandford, Brookfield, Ber- 




Chicopee, . 


14 


nardston, Coleraine, Dalton, 




Westfield and Northampton, 9 




Grafton, Ludlow, Orange, 




each, 


18 


Prescott, Princeton, South- 




Pittsfield, . 


8 


bridge, Spencer, Sturbridge, 




Holyoke, 


7 


Sunderland, Sutton, Wales, 




Births, 


7 


West Boylston, West Brook- 




Barre, . . . 


6 


field, West Springfield, Wil- 




Westborough and Adams, 5 each, 


10 


liamstown and Windsor, 1 




Richmond and Ware, 4 each, . 


8 


each, 


24 


Northbridge, Warren, Becket, 








Great Barrington, Milford, 






687 



24 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Statement No. 2. 

The following Table shows the Number Admitted each Month, Age and Sex. 













o 


o 

CM 


o 


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MONTHS. 




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October, 


45 


40 


5 


7 


10 


13 


5 


6 


2 


1 


1 


- 


November, . 


49 


31 


18 


15 


16 


10 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


- 


December, 


88 


66 


22 


19 


23 


28 


11 


1 


3 


1 


2 


- 


January, 


106 


86 


20 


6 


22 


35 


15 


9 


11 


4 


4 


- 


February, 


49 


37 


12 


6 


11 


14 


6 


3 


6 


2 


1 


- 


March, . 


39 


27 


12 


7 


16 


10 


5 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


April, . 


49 


36 


13 


6 


11 


9 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 


1 


May, 


40 


27 


13 


10 


8 


5 


8 


2 


4 


2 


1 


- 


June, 


77 


56 


21 


30 


30 


5 


5 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


July, . 


59 


39 


20 


13 


18 


8 


9 


4 


5 


1 


- 


1 


August, . 


47 


37 


10 


10 


16 


8 


4 


- 


5 


2 


1 


1 


September, . 


39 


26 


13 


14 


11 


4 


4 


2 


1 


2 


1 


- 


Totals, 


687 


508 


179 


143 


192 


149 


78 


36 


45 


21 


18 


5 



Statement No. 3. 
Detailed Account of Current Expenditures. 

Beans, 100 bushels, $181 44 

Beef (fresh), 47,666 pounds, 3,696 87 

Books, newspapers, postage and stationery, .... 345 22 

Carriages and harnesses, 393 43 

Cement and lime, 64 40 

Clothing, 1,058 71 

Coal, 631 tons, 4,925 36 

Coffee, 4,596 pounds, 439 44 

Corn, 1,758 bushels, 1,417 49 

Crockery and glass ware, 183 90 

Dry goods, 3,697 51 

Eggs, 59 94 

Feed, 25 tons, 823 42 



1871.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 25 

Fertilizers, $205 08 

Flour, 767 barrels, 5,432 50 

Fish (salt and fresh), 14,430 pounds, . . . . . . 521 40 

Furniture, 1,053 98 

Grist-mill, 140 00 

Groceries, . . 255 12 

Hardware, 532 65 

Hay (meadow), 3£ tons, . 52 65 

Hops, 30 35 

Labor, 5,269 85 

Leather, ............ 271 26 

Live stock, 370 84 

Lumber, 617 48 

Malt, 21 66 

Meal (Indian), 9 J tons, 604 40 

Meats and provisions, 338 . 98 

Medicines, , 137 12 

Miscellaneous, 146 80 

Molasses, 2,143 gallons, 1,061 12 

Oats, 204 bushels, 197 42 

Oil, 502 gallons, 359 27 

Paints, oils and colors, . 129 64 

Pasturage, 100 00 

Pepper, 125 pounds, 52 50 

Pease, 192 bushels, 352 90 

Potatoes, 203 bushels, . . 264 70 

Repairs, 480 49 

Rice, 2,744 pounds, 228 81 

Salaries, 10,669 97 

Salt, 82 67 

Seeds, 51 60 

Shoes, . 1,105 67 

Smith-work and stock, 568 79 

Soap stock, 405 49 

Straw, 2 tons, 34 76 

Sugar, 3,286 pounds, 471 44 

Tea, 198 pounds, 178 85 

Tinware, 75 17 

Tools (agricultural and mechanical), 442 54 

Transportation of freight, 689 09 

Transportation of passengers, . 144 46 

Watch clock, 75 00 

Wooden ware, . . 158 41 

$51,670 01 
4 



26 



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1871.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



27 



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28 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



29 



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ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Statement No. 8. 
Products of the Farm. 



101 tons 


English hay. 


225 bushels ruta-bagas. 


261 « 


rowen. 


675 " carrots. 


4 " 


corn fodder. 


10J " beans (in pod). 


40 " 


green fodder. 


23 " pease (in pod). 


H " 


rye straw. 


4 " currants. 


81 bushels sweet corn ears. 


120 boxes strawberries. 


• 6 " 


pop-corn ears. 


5 bushels quinces. 


4 tons 


winter squashes. 


2 " pears. 


Iton 


summer squashes. 


22 " cucumbers. 


1,500 pounds water-melons. 


28 " tomatoes. 


300 " 


musk-melons. 


212 " onions. 


25 " 


garden seeds. 


3,000 " potatoes. 


600 " 


pie plant. 


3,048 heads cabbage. 


721 " 


veal. 


25,146 gallons milk. 


6,782 " 


beef. 


28 cords wood. 


10,629 " 


pork. 


9,000 feet lumber. 


75 bushels parsnips. 


49 pigs. 


284 " 


blood beets. 


23 calves. 


250 " 


sugar beets. 


6 calfskins. 


250 " 


English turnips. 


1 cowskin. 


80 " 


French turnips. 


15 lbs. wool. 


350 " 


mangolds. 


75 bushels rye. 



1871.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



31 



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32 



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Tonsilitis, 

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Tumor, . 

Ulcers, 

Venereal, 

Wounds and bruises 

Other diseases, 


Totals, . 
Monthly averag 



1871.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



33 



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Samuel D. Brooks, 

John M. Brewster, Jr., 

Horace P. Wakefield, 



1871.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



37 



REPORT OP CHAPLAIN AND PRINCIPAL. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen : — The following statement will show the changes 
that have occurred in the institution since my last annual report : 



Number of Children admitted from October 1, 1870, to October 1, 1871. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


From Monson State Almshouse, 

Keturned from places, 


135 

52 


57 

31 


192 

83 




187 


88 


275 



Number of Children removed from October 1, 1870, to October 1, 1871. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


To families, 

Died, 

Eloped, 

Discharged by Board of State Charities, . 


120 

3 

15 

36 


51 

2 
25 


171 
3 

17 
61 




174 


78 


252 


Whole number of children, October 1, 1870, 

Net gain during the year, 


260 
13 


72 
10 


332 
23 


Whole number of children September 30, 1871, . 


273 


82 


355 


Whole number of children during the year, 


447 


160 


607 


Average number, 




. 


335 



The average number, when compared with the aggregate 
number, is less than last year. This indicates more frequent 
changes. The children remain with us for a comparatively 



38 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

short period. Some of them continue scarcely long enough to 
have their names recorded and their history ascertained. Sev- 
eral have been out and in, three or four times during the year, 
but owing to their age or disposition they find no permanent 
habitation, and thus our general average is materially affected. 

Ninety of those admitted from the Almshouse were sent by 
the Visiting Agent, having been taken by him from the courts, 
under the charges of vagrancy, disobedience, stubbornness, etc. 
Some of the instances of reform among these have been quite 
marked. Indeed, we doubt very much whether, in the majority 
of cases, such a decided moral obliquity has existed as these 
formidable charges would imply. Neglect will cause the seeds 
of evil to germinate, when in other circumstances they would 
have forever lain dormant. The best of children will fall into 
mischief if left in the streets without restraint. It is astonish- 
ing how large a yield of kindly dispositions and noble impulses 
may by a little instruction and sympathy be brought out of 
these previously untaught and unchecked spirits. The wisdom 
of the policy which places these delinquents in a school spec- 
ially provided as a receptacle for them, rather than in a penal 
institution where the more vicious and hardened are congre- 
gated, must become more and more apparent as the present 
system is perfected. 

The following is a general record of attendance in school, 
together with a separate notice of each division. Twelve chil- 
dren belonging to the Almshouse are attending school at the 
date of this report. There are also nine members of the State 
Primary School at present, not counted as pupils, two or three 
of whom are physically or mentally disqualified ; and the rest, 
having been returned from places, are too old to be kept regu- 
larly at school. 

Record of Attendance. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Number in State Primary School Sept. 30, 1871, 

not attending school, 


273 

5 


82 

4. 


355 

9 




268 


78 


346 



1871.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 

Record of Attendance— Continued. 



39 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Number attending school from Almshouse,. 

of children attending school Sept. 30, 1871, . 


5 
273 


7 

85 


12 

358 


Number of different scholars during the year, . 

Average attendance, 


567 
309 



No. 1. — Miss Marsh, Teacher. 
Number of scholars : boys, 52 ; girls, 24 ; total, 76. Aver- 
age age, 12 years. This comprises the most advanced pupils. 
They use Sargent's Third and Fourth Readers, Guyot's Inter- 
mediate Geography, and Eaton's Intellectual and Common 
School Arithmetics. All have been practised in penmanship 
during the year, under the direction of Miss Nettie M. Sage, 
who has also with great success given instruction to the chil- 
dren in vocal music. She resigned in September, and her place 
is now filled by Miss Goddard. The actual attendance in No. 
1 is not so large as the number would indicate. The half-time 
system is pursued, allowing a portion of the school to be at 
work, while the rest are in the school-room. In this way the 
scholars are divided into forenoon and afternoon classes, so that 
there are seldom more than 60 present at any one time. 

No. 2. — Miss Witt, Teacher. 
Number of scholars : boys, 64. Average age, 11 years. The 
books used are Sargent's Third and Fourth Readers. Two of 
the classes read in the " Child's Paper," having thus a new text- 
book each month. A part study geography, and all are prac- 
tised in writing, and in mental arithmetic. Those who are 
promoted from this school are required to have a good knowl- 
edge of the multiplication table. 

No. 3. — Mrs. Darte, Teacher. 
Number of scholars : boys, 63. Average age, 9 years. This 
is the best graded of the schools. All the boys are of nearly 
the same size, and all read in one class, using the Second 
Reader. The attention to articulation and pronunciation is 
quite marked. 



40 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 71. 

No. 4. — Miss Hill, Teacher. 
Number of scholars : boys, 51. Average age, 9 years. The 
books used are the Primer and First Reader. This school has 
had four teachers during the year. Miss Hill has but recently 
taken the place of Miss Parkhurst, who was obliged to resign 
on account of the failure of her health. 

No. 5. — Miss Strong, Teacher. 
Number of scholars : boys, 17 ; girls, 37 ; total, 54. Aver- 
age age, 8 years. The books used are the Primer, and First 
and Second Readers. The number of boys so preponderates in 
the institution, that it was thought best to place the girls in three 
schools only, rather than have them sprinkled through the 
whole. Number 4, therefore, may be considered as comprising 
the second or middle class of girls. They give evidence of the 
excellent training which they received from Mrs. Emerson 
during the early part of the year, as well as later under their 
present teacher. 

No. 6.— Miss Lamson, Teacher. 
Number of scholars : boys, 26 ; girls, 24 ; total, 50. Aver- 
age age, 5 years. These are mostly alphabet scholars. The 
exercises are mainly of a miscellaneous character, consisting of 
music and gymnastics. 

The general management and methods of discipline in the 
educational part of our work have been essentially the same as 
heretofore. I am able to report good progress on the part of 
the pupils in their studies, under the direction of efficient 
teachers, and also a commendable attention to the moral and 
religious instruction imparted by me, both in conversation and 
in the Sabbath services. 

Respectfully submitted, 

CHARLES F. FOSTER. 
Monson, Sept. 30, 1871. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. 



.No. 25. 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



THE INSPECTORS 






MONSON. 



2?&2^*t. 



October, 1872 



BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS 
79 Milk Street (corner of Federal). 

1873. 



€cmmont»caltl) of JflasBacIjusetts. 



INSPECTORS' REPORT. 



To his Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Council, 

Since making our last Annual Report the character of this 
institution has been changed for the better. The Almshouse 
department, which had been an obstacle of success to the Pri- 
mary School, was abolished by the last legislature, the Act 
taking effect on the first of May. 

That Act, however, permitted the transfer of paupers from the 
Tewksbury State Almshouse to the Primary School, for support 
and service, and under it 43 persons were allowed to remain, 13 
of whom were young children. 

The Board of State Charities have since transferred other 
paupers from Tewksbury to this place, so that the work of the 
institution has been carried on without much increase of paid 
labor. 

These inmate helpers are not allowed to mingle with the 
children, but must of necessity come in contact with them occa- 
sionally. Their condition is, no doubt, somewhat ameliorated 
by living here instead of in a greater population of similar sub- 
jects. The time will probably come when this class may be 
wholly dispensed with. 

The inmates of the institution are now of three classes, as 
follows : — 

First. The children of the Primary School admitted from 
other institutions by the Board of State Charities. 



4 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Second. A number of boys and girls taken from the juvenile 
courts by the Visiting Agent and placed here for temporary cus- 
tody, or till the Board of State Charities can admit them to the 
school. While in this condition they are allowed to attend 
school and associate with the other children as if they were 
members of the school. 

Third. The paupers or helpers above described, mostly 
females, some of whom have infants, who count in the number 
of this class, but who are really in neither of the classes speci- 
fied. 

Almshouse Department. 

The number of inmates in the Almshouse department, October 
1, 1871, was — 

Men, ......... 14 

Women, . . . . . . . . 29 

Boys, 11 

Girls, 12 

Total, 66 

Admitted from October 1,1871, to May 1, 1872, at 
the closing of this department, including transfers 
from other institutions, permits from overseers of 

the poor, and by birth, 330 

Total in Almshouse during year, . . . 396 

Average number supported in the Almshouse to 

May 1, 1872, . 86 

For Support and Temporary Custody. 

The number allowed to remain here as helpers and for sup- 
port, at the breaking up of the Almshouse, was made up of 6 
men, 24 women, 7 boys, 6 girls. The children were all under 
three years of age, and had mothers or brothers and sisters in 
the institution. Since the first of May there have been received 
from the Tewksbury Almshouse, 5 women, 26 boys, 14 girls, — 
in all 45. 



1872.]. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No 25. 



Number of children admitted through the Visiting 
Agency of the Board of State Charities 3 , for tem- 
porary custody, since May 1, 1872, . 

Total admissions for support and temporary custody, 



24 
112 



From this number there have been, — 



Transferred 


to Primary School, .... 40 


Discharged, 


7 


Eloped, 


7 


Died, . 


1 


Total, . 


...... 5, 


Remaining 


for support and temporary custody, October, 1 


1872, 57. 





Of this number 5 are men, 20 women, 21 boys, 11 girls. 
Average number supported since May 1, 1872, 46. 



The Primary School. 

The Primary School has had only five months' existence in- 
dependent of the State Almshouse, and the taint left by the lat- 
ter has not entirely been eradicated ; yet the good effect of the 
new dispensation is observable among the children. 

They know and feel that they are not in a " poor-house," and 
that the name of "pauper" will not follow them when they go 
out. With this stigma removed they will not, in the future, 
look back to the school with mortification or abhorrence, as 
some of the children have done in years past. 

The law regulating admission to, the school should be changed 
so as to allow overseers of the poor the privilege of sending 
children here instead of to the Tewksbury Almshouse, where 
they must await tranfers by the Board of State Charities. In 
this respect the children taken from the juvenile courts have an 
advantage, inasmuch as they do not have to be made paupers 
before they can become members of the Primary School. 



6 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

The several divisions of the school have been under the care 
of competent teachers, and the pupils have made as much prog- 
ress in their studies as could be expected. In grade of scholar- 
ship they come up to the average of children in our common 
schools. 

To relieve the monotony of study and discipline, those who 
are old enough have been employed a portion of the time in 
various ways in and about the institution. Tlrey supply in a 
measure the loss of help occasioned by the abolition of the 
Almshouse. 

As moat of our children go out, eventually, into families, to 
remain for a term of years, we deem it a wise measure to initiate 
them into habits of industry here. With such habits acquired 
they will be more desirable for persons seeking them, and more 
likely to remain in their places when they go out. 

We get some children who, in consequence of bodily infirmi- 
ties, are not sought or desired by families. They must neces- 
sarily remain here for a long time; and if such can be taught 
some useful employment, by which they may help themselves, 
the sooner they can get out. 

It is proposed to fit up work rooms in which many of the boys 
can be employed at seating chairs or some other useful labor. 

One hundred and sixty-eight children have gone out into fam- 
ilies during the year, — 125 boy£, 43 girls j and 79 of those out 
in places have returned. 

Number of children in Primary School, October 1, 1871, — 

Boys, 273 

Girls, ......... 82 

Total, . 355 

Admitted during the year through the Board of 
State Charities, and from places, — 

Boys, 152 

Girls, 78 

230 

Total, 585 



1872.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 7 

Placed out in families, discharged, eloped and died, — 

Boys, 175 

Girls, 69 

Total, ..." 244 

Remaining in Primary School, October 1, 1872, — 

Boys, 250 

Girls, 91 

Total, .'.-.. 341 

Average number during the year, . . . 361 
Average number supported in the institution through 

the year, 431 

The cost of supporting each inmate per week, pre- 
vious to May 1, 1872, was .... $1 96 
Since May 1, the cost has been, per week, . . 2 46 
Expense per week for each person during the year, 2 14 

General Affairs. 

An appropriation of $2,000 was made by the last legislature 
for the purchase of more land; and with this money twenty 
acres of grass land, adjoining the farm, has been bought of A. J. 
Northrop. On this lot stands a good barn, in which 28 tons of 
hay, the product of the field the past season, is stored. 

A further appropriation of $3,584,10 was made at the same 
time for the purpose of lighting the institution with gas, and 
making alterations and repairs. 

After examining several gas machines it was decided to try 
the " Excelsior " machine, manufactured at Warren, Massachu- 
setts. The rooms are all piped, and the machine is now on 
trial. The gas furnished by this machine is made from gasoline, 
and is represented as cheaper and better than that furnished by 
any other machine. The costs of piping the building amounts 
to $845.34. The machine, being an experiment, and on trial, 
is not paid for. 

All the buildings have been painted white, which gives them 
a changed and more cheerful appearance. 



8 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

The building known as the " Old Men's Shop," which stood 
at the entrance of the rear yard, and was not only unsightly, 
but difficult to warm, in consequence of being far from the 
boilers, has been moved across the yard, nearer to the source of 
heat, and will be converted into a workshop and school-room 
for the large boys. 

Improvements and repairs have been made in the children's 
dining room, the cook and dish rooms, and in the boys' bathing- 
room. A play-room for the boys, in very cold and stormy 
weather, has been fitted up in the cellar under the chapel. A 
drying-room has been made in the old wash-room, where clothes 
can be dried by steam in a short time. Two sheds have been 
erected, — one for storing wood and tools, the other for a wagon 
and cart-shed, — and both forming sheds in the basements for 
cattle in the barnyards. Many other improvements, quite neces- 
sary for convenience and economy, have been made in the 
buildings and upon the premises. 

In and about an institution like this there can be no end to 
repairs, which are easier made when first needed than after ex- 
isting for a long time. In the past three or four years, much 
has been done in the way of making improvements and repairs f 
at an expense of many thousand dollars. We now believe that 
the expense will be comparatively light in keeping things in 
good condition for many years. 

Farming operations have been carried on with much the same 
success as in past years. The farm has been brought into ex- 
cellent condition, and with the betterments that may be made 
from year to year with our ordinary help, no extra expense need 
be incurred for improvements. 

The products of the farm on hand at this time, — consisting 
chiefly of hay, potatoes and garden vegetables, — are valued by 
Mr. D. B. Bishop, the appraiser, at $7,202.60. 

The Hospital records show that six births and twelve deaths 
have occurred during the year. Six of the latter were members 
of the Primary School. 

Since the opening of the Institution there have been 382 
births and 1,077 deaths. 



1872.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



Officers and their Salaries. 

Horace P. Wakefield, Superintendent and Physician 
Charles F. Foster, Asst Superintendent, Chaplain 

and Principal, .... 
John N. Lacey, Engineer, 
George W. Cobb, Baker, 
George EL Fisherdick, Farmer, 
Horatio H. Fisherdick, Assistant-Farmer, 
Gurdon Chapman, Cook, 
George H. Stone, Assistant-Farmer, . 
Uriah Manning, Supervisor, 
I. Henry Easterbrook, Assistant- Principal 
Abraham S. Barnard, Watchman, . 
George W. Keyes, Teamster, . 
Charles E. Howard, Assistant- Supervisor, 
James Skevington, Assistant-Engineer , 
J. Michael Sisk, Driver, . 
Climena Wakefield, Cleric, 
Mary B. Wakefield, Matron, . 
Susan C. Yarrington, Assistant-Matron, 
Mary W. Richmond, Laundress, 
Charlotte A. St. John, Nurse, . 
Anna J. Patton, Seamstress, 
Annie C. Gallivan, Supervisor of Girls, 
Lucy E. R. Hill, Teacher, 
Mary E. Witt, Teacher, . 
Harriett E. Darte, Teacher, . 
Clara Go wing, Teacher, . 
Myra A. Smith, Teacher, 
Ada 0. Copeland, Teacher, 
Ida R. Wiliey, Teacher, . 

Inspectors. 
Gordon M. Fisk, .... 
Eleazar Porter, .... 
Thomas Rice, . 

This member has taken no salary since January 1 



$1,800 00 

1,400 00 
1,200 00 
732 00 
600 00 
430 00 
480 00 
360 00 
360 00 
360 00 
360 00 
360 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
500 00 
300 00 
300 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 



160 00 
160 00 



1870. 



10 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Inventory op 1872. 

[Taken by D. B. Bishop, of Palmer.] 

Live Stock, 

Products of Farm, ... 

Machinery and mechanical tools, . 

Carriages and agricultural tools, . 

Beds and Bedding (inmates' department), 

Other property (inmates' department), . 

Personal property (Superintendent's department) 

Ready-made clothing, boots and shoes, . 

Dry goods, . . . 

Groceries and Provisions, 

Drugs and medicines, . 

Fuel, 

Library and school-books 



Total Personal Property, 

Buildings, .... 

Land, ..... 

Total Real Estate. 



$6,002 00 

7,202 60 

10,377 25 

3,047 49 

6,046 55 

4,636 90 

6,931 99 

4,968 36 

1,295 08 

2,532 39 

416 27 

5,065 87 

349 28 



$102,760 00 
18, 778 69 



$58,875 03 



121,538 69 



Total Real and Personal Property, 



$180,413 72 



We refer to the report of Dr. Wakefield, Superintendent and 
Physician, for a detialed account of receipts and expenses ; also, 
for particulars concerning repairs and improvements which have 
been made according to his plans and under his supervision. 

We also call attention- to the excellent report of Rev. Chas. 
F. Foster, Principal of the School, and Chaplain. 

With a decrease of numbers in the institution, in consequence 
of the abolition of the Almshouse, a reasonable decrease of ex- 
penses may be expected. It should be remembered, however, 
that it will require nearly as many officers to carry on the 
establishment now as it did before the removal of the paupers. 
It will also take about the same amount of fuel to warm the 
buildings, and do the cooking and washing. In food and wear- 
ing apparel there will be a saving, but not corresponding to the 



1872.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 11 

decrease in numbers, as our children wear out clothes faster 
than full-grown inmates, and have appetites quite as destructive 
to food. 

Whatever can be done by the Inspectors to retrench expenses, 
and economize in the management of the affairs of the Primary 
School, they propose to do. But they deprecate any measure of 
economy that shall abridge the privileges, lessen the educa- 
tional facilities, or detract from the benefits which this good 
Commonwealth desires, through this school, to bestow upon its 
dependent children. 

GORDON M. FISK, 
ELEAZAR PORTER, 
THOMAS RICE, 

Inspectors. 
State Primary School, Monson, October 1, 1872. 



12 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT AND PHYSICIAN. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School at Monson. 

Gentlemen : — Our former Reports have been so severely 
criticized for quotations from the Scriptures, the poets, and the 
classics, that we propose to submit for your consideration a 
simple, plain, unvarnished tale, in detail, of our condition and 
interests this' first day of October, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-two. 

Receipts. 

Cash received from unexpended appropriation of 

1871, $18,912 63 

Cash received from annual appropriation of 1872, 29,150 24 

Cash received from special appropriation for 
steam-heating, 1,21601 

Cash received from special appropriation for 
general repairs, . . - . . . . 430 36 

Cash received from special appropriation for land 
and gas 2,934 69 



Receipts from all appropriations, . . $52,643 93 
Receipts from all other sources, . . . 115 29 



Total receipts, $52,759 22 

Expenditures. 

Salaries, ........ $12,427 23 

Provisions, 13,756 5Q 

Other expenses, 21,879 08 



Total current expenditures, . . . $48,062 87 



1872.] 



public document—no. 25 



Brought forward f . 
Cash paid from special appropriation for steam 

heating, ...... 

Cash paid from special appropriation for general 

repairs 
Cash paid from special appropriation for land 

and gas, 

Total expenditures, . 
Cash paid into state treasury, 

Total cash payments, 

The number of inmates in the Almshouse depart 

ment, October 1, 1871, was 
Men, 
Women 

Total adults, 
Boys, 
Girls, 

Total children, 

There were admitted to the Almshouse from 
October 1, 1871, to May 1, 1872, by permits, 
transfers from other institutions and births, 



Total, .... 

Discharged, .... 
Transferred to the Primary School, 
Deserted, .... 

Died, ..... 
Constructively transferred to Tewksbury, 
Total, ..... 




The number of persons transferred from Tewks 
bury to Monson for support May 1, 1872, was 

Men, 

Women, 

Total adults, . . . . . 



13 

$48,062 87 

1,216 01 
430 36 

2,934 69 

$52,643 93 
115 29 



$52,759 


22 




66 


14 




29 




— 43 




11 




12 





23 



330 



396 



218 
111 

19 
5 

43 



396 



43 



6 
24 



30 



14 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct 

Boys, 7 

Girls, 6 

Total children, 13 

These children were all under three years of age, 
having brothers or sisters in the Primary School, 
or transferred with the mother to this institu- 
tion for support. 

The number of persons transferred from Tewks- 
bury to Monson for support since May 1, 1872, 
is ........ 45 

Women, . 5 

Boys, ' . . . 26 

Girls, ........ 14 

Number of children sent from the court by the 

Board of State Charities for temporary custody, 24 

Boys, 17 

Girls, 7 

Total admissions from May 1, 1872, to Oct. — 

1,1872, 112 

Transferred to the Primary School, ... 40 

Discharged, 7 

Deserted, 7 

Died, 1 

Total, ....... 55 

i 
Number remaining for support or temporary cus- 
tody, October 1, 1872, 57 

Number remaining for support, . . . 54 

Men, 5 

Women, . 20 

Boys, ........ 18 

Girls, .11 

Number remaining in temporary custody,- . . 3 

Boys, 3 



1872.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



15 



Number in the Primary School department, Oct 

1,1871, 
Boys, .... 
Girls, .... 
Admitted during the year, 
Boys, .... 
Girls, .... 

Total, 
Discharged, deserted and died, 
Boys, .... 
Girls, .... 



Eemaining in the Primary School, Oct 
Boys, ..... 
Girls, 



1,1872, 



Average number supported in the Primary School, 

for the year ending October 1, 1872, 
Average number supported in the Almshouse 

prior to May 1, 1872, 

Average number of persons, not members of the 

Primary School, supported in the institution 

since May 1, 1872, ..... 
Average number supported in the institution for 

the year ending October 1, 1872, . 
Average cost per week for each person prior to 

May 1, 1872, 

Average cost per week for each person since 

May 1, 1872, 

Average cost per week for each person for the 

year ending October 1, 1872, 



278 

82 

152 

78 



175 
69 



250 
91 



355 



230 



585 
244 



341 



361 

86 

46 

431 

$1 96 

2 46 

2 14 



Until the present summer we have never had a suitable place 
for keeping milk. We have constructed a room in the cellar, 
under the main building of the house, and furnished the same 
so that, by supplying ice, we can reduce the temperature of the 
room in the hottest weather in summer to any required poinN 



16 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct 

This has enabled us to supply ourselves with butter of our own 
manufacture, — which is not a small item in a family of our 
magnitude. 

During the year we have constructed a new drying-room in 
the room formerly used as a wash-room. The clothes are hung 
on frames which are drawn forth and i*un back into a room so 
heated by steam that they can be dried, in any weather and at 
any time, in less than an hour. This is a great convenience 
where such washings as we have must be done, rain or shine, 
and at such times as this year, when the shines are few and 
far between. 

The cooking-room of the Primary School has been entirely 
rejuvenated. A new floor has been laid, partly of brick under 
and in front of the kettles, and partly of hard pine. Four ket- 
tles have been retinned and reset, two ninety-gallon common 
iron kettles set, and one eighty-gallon and one thirty-gallon 
jacket kettle have been added to our cooking apparatus. These 
have been repiped for steam, and water, both hot and cold, is 
served to them and the sinks through the seamless brass tubes. 
The ceiling has been newly plastered, and the walls and wood- 
work painted and varnished. 

In the dining-hall new tables have been constructed, seating 
the children by sections under the eye of a guide, and stools 
have been furnished for seats instead of benches. The appear- 
ance of the room has been much improved, and the children 
more nearly resemble family groups than formerly, with one of 
their own number doing the honors of the table. The dish- 
room connected with the dining-hall has been remodelled, re- 
floored and repainted. 

Connected with the cooking-room, dining-hall and dish-room, 
we have made a cellar, with a brick floor, large enough to hold 
the vegetables, molasses, groceries, etc., used in this department, 
and entirely separated from the rest of the establishment. This 
makes a great improvement lor those engaged in the cooking 
department, abates a great nuisance, and greatly^rclieves those 
who have the charge of the rest of the cellars. 



1872.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— -No. 25. 17 

A steam-kettle for the bakery has been reset, floors relaid, 
walls painted and heater for the oven relaid and piped with the 
seamless tube. 

The bathing-room for the boys has been in a dilapidated con- 
dition for a long time. We have removed the partitions and 
taken into the bathing-room the rooms formerly occupied for a 
store-room and for cells. By so doing we have secured a large 
and commodious room. The pool still remains, and we have 
furnished the room with eight tubs. The water is conveyed to 
the tubs and sink, in the brass tubes, and the room is heated by 
steam. In addition to this, we constructed a room furnished 
with two bathing-tubs, a sink and water-closet, always open and 
ready for the reception of any boys who may need such accom- 
modations at short notice, and without waiting to obtain the 
keys for admission to the larger room. In connection with this 
room we have made six cells for restraint, which we have sel- 
dom had occasion to use since the abolition of the Almshouse, 
except to restrain restive boys sent here by the courts, and 
others whom no fence will confine and no ordinary watching 
will detain. 

We have also fitted up a room under the chapel, sixty feet by 
twenty-five, as a play-room for boys. This is heated by steam, 
lighted by gas, and fitted with sinks and conveniences for wash- 
ing, and is intended to be used in extremely cold and wet 
weather as a substitute for the building in the rear, which is at 
some distance from the dining and school-rooms and the dormi- 
tories. 

The lead tank in one of our attics, which occasionally leaked, 
sometimes causing much inconvenience, and at others damage to 
our plastering, has been replaced by an iron one, holding about 
nine hundred gallons. We have continued the work of relaying 
floors when other and more pressing demands would permit, 
and hope in the course of another year to have refloored the 
whole establishment. 

The building and apparatus used for cooking food for the 
hogs had become so bad that it was unsafe to use fire in it. We 
3 



18 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

tore out the old wooden floor, laid a new one of brick, set two 
iron kettles in brick and built a new chimney, making it con- 
venient and also much safer. The horse barn, taken from the 
old barn, we moved to a new location last year. We have this 
year new silled it and put in a new floor, so that it can be used 
as a place of storage and stalling cattle. 

Before this year there had never been a wood shed on the 
premises. We have now erected one, fifty feet by twenty, part 
of which can be used for a tool-room or storehouse. It is loca- 
ted by the side of the barnyard, so that the basement forms a 
shed for the shelter of cattle in rainy and cold weather, and also 
a cover for the water-trough, which hitherto has been exposed in 
the middle of the yard. We have also erected a shed, forty 
feet by eighteen, for the storage of carts and wagons. This is 
similarly situated at the other barn, and affords the cattle there, 
and the water, a similar protection, so that the two' roofs virtu- 
ally cover four sheds. The building that was originally a cider- 
mill and afterwards used as an ash-house, has been moved, 
covered and shingled, and forms another shelter in the yard for 
the cattle and sheep. 

We have laid a drain some forty rods, to carry off the surplus 
water from our reservoir, which formerly ran over the surface, 
rendering the land so cold and wet that it produced little of 
value. This has changed the aspect of things, and will render 
the land much more productive. 

On the first of May we began to change the old Almshouse 
yellow for pure white, which has decidedly improved the appear- 
ance of this group of buildings. We have covered the windows 
of the main building with blinds, which are not only convenient 
but ornamental. The rooms of the teachers have also been 
repainted and papered. 

The building that was formerly used for the accommodation 
of men while this was an Almshouse, and which stood on the 
westerly side of the yard, has been moved to the east, in rear of 
the cook-room. The reasons for so doing are, first, that it could 
be more economically heated and lighted in its present position, 



1872.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 19 

being now much nearer the boiler and gas-houses than before; 
and, secondly, that we might secure a better entrance into our 
rear grounds and at the same time beautify our premises on the 
southerly side. Part of the building will be used as formerly 
for the accommodation of our helpers, while the main part will 
be refitted for a work-shop, — so that our boys may be engaged 
in some mechanical employment, like chair-seating, a part of the 
year at least, — and another part will be fitted for another 
school-room. 

The legislature at its last session passed an Act, February 27, 
to abolish the State Almshouse at Monson, to take effect May 1, 
1872. By section three of said Act, it is provided that "the 
Board of State Charities may, from time to time, select for sup- 
port at the state primary school any state paupers whose labor, 
in domestic or other service at that institution, may contribute 
to the cost of their support, or whose maintenance at the same 
may, for special reasons, be deemed expedient." On this day 
the Almshouse was abolished, and the Board of State Charities 
constructively transferred from Tewksbury twenty-four women 
as helpers, most of them mothers of children in the Primary 
School. This Board has, from time to time, transferred from 
the State Almshouse other mothers with their children to sup- 
ply the places of those discharged and absconded. 

By this provision of law and by such execution of the same, 
our objections to this change have been mainly removed, and, 
although we have lost the privilege of sometimes entertaining 
angels unawares, we have been relieved from the trouble of 
waiting upon all the loafers, bummers and. vagrants that for- 
merly wished to be entertained at the Commonwealth's half-way 
house between Boston, Albany and New Haven. 

Before we decided what machine to use for the manufacture of 
gas, we made a pretty thorough investigation of all the machines 
within our knowledge. We found all parties ready to give us 
all the information they possessed on the subject, and all were 
confident that theirs was the one best adapted to our wants. We 
found it very difficult to agree with all, and finally decided to 
try the Excelsior Gas Machine, manufactured in the neighboring 



20 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

town of Warren. In our opinion, it combines more good points 
and has less objections than the others we examined. 

The gas manufactured by this machine is generated from 
gasoline. The tank containing the fluid is situated about four 
hundred feet from the machine, on the hill in rear of our build- 
ings, giving us a pressure of about twelve pounds to the square 
inch, thus avoiding all trouble of creating pressure by pumping. 
A given quantity of gasoline passes into the retort of the ma- 
chine by gravitation, is vaporized by heat, and, while passing 
into the holder, is mixed with a given quantity of atmospheric 
air and converted into gas. The amount of air admitted is 
under control, so that the quality of the gas can readily be 
adjusted. When the holder, which never contains more than 
three or four feet of gas, is filled, the gasoline is shut off and no 
more can enter the retort till the gas already manufactured is 
used up. A valve then opens and the gasoline is again admitted. 
The more burners we use, the faster the machine moves and the 
faster the gas is manufactured. By this arrangement we have 
the same quality of gasoline to manufacture from, in the last as 
in the first use, and consequently the same quality of gas, since 
it is generated by heat applied to the retort and cannot be 
affected by the different temperatures of summer and winter. 

The gas-house is situated in the yard near the engine-house, 
and is built of brick, in the form of an octagon, about eight feet 
in diameter. The machine is constructed entirely of metal, 
and the interior of the building is fire-proof. The capacity of 
the machine is two hundred lights. The piping of the build- 
ings was done by the foot, by Mr. Sibley, of Warren. This 
alone has been finished and paid for, amounting to $845.34. 
On the 12 th of September the machine was set up, and a few of 
the lights were set running on that evening, and occasionally 
since. It gives a good light; but the fixtures have not all 
arrived yet, the apparatus is not completed, and the machine 
has not been delivered into our hands. 

About a year ago we received the refusal of a piece of inter- 
val land, — adjoining the farm, and lying on Chicopee River, — of 
Andrew J. Northrop, for the sum of two thousand dollars. In 



1872.] public document—no. 25. 21 

February we petitioned the legislature for leave to use a part 
of our unexpended balances for the purchase of this land. 
After viewing the premises, and giving all parties a hearing on 
the subject, the committee to whom the subject was referred, 
unanimously reported in favor of it, and the resolve providing 
therefor was signed by the governor, on the 9th of April, 1872. 
On the 24th of April, said Northrop and his wife executed a 
joint deed of said land, with the buildings thereon, to the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts, for the consideration of two thou- 
sand dollars, and, after the same was recorded, we deposited it 
in the office of the treasurer of the Commonwealth, as required 
by law. 

After Mr. Northrop gave us the refusal of this land, he made 
improvements by manuring, ploughing, seeding, composting, 
and spending hay on the premises to the amount of two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars, which sum we paid from our own pocket. 
We knew that it would be worth this sum to us in executing 
the plans we had laid for the improvement of the whole farm, 
and were confident, also, that it would be a good investment for 
the State, even at an advance of two hundred and fifty dollars. 

To substantiate this opinion, we will give the products of this 
land gathered this season, besides the fall feed on the same, the 
whole of which land is in grass. The estimate of Mr. Bishop, 
who has made the inventory for this and several previous years, 
is as follows : — 

Land, 20 acres, . $2,000 00 

Buildings, 250 00 

14 tons of hay at $25, . . . $350 00 
14 tons of hay at $18, . . . 252 00 



Total value of hay, ... 602 00 

On this estimate the products already harvested would pay 
the interest of the money actually paid, one hundred and thirt}^- 
five dollars; the improvements made, two hundred and fifty 
dollars; allow a hundred dollars for cutting and securing the 
hay, and then leave a net profit of more than a hundred dollars. 



22 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

The deficiency bills for the years 1865, '66 and '67, amounted 
to $19,895.74. When we assumed the duties of Superintend- 
ent, the appropriation for 1868 was sixty thousand dollars, an 
although saddled with a debt of more than a thousand dollars, 
contracted the previous year, we have never had the unpleasant 
duty of presenting bills for liquidation for which the legislature 
had not already made provision. 

We have expended from special appropriations, for new boil- 
ers, laundry apparatus, and improvements on the Primary 
School buildings, a little over eight thousand dollars, besides 
sixteen thousand dollars appropriated for steam-heating appa- 
ratus ; which was more than five thousand dollars less than the 
cost of that at Bridgewater. 

From the appropriations of 1869, '70 and '71, we saved the 
sum of $13,054.03, and asked the legislature to allow us to 
spend it in the purchase of land, in lighting the buildings with 
gas, in building new and remodelling old buildings, and in mak- 
ing improvements on the premises generally; which requests 
were generously granted. 'The purchase of the forty-six acres 
of land adjoining the farm, the lighting of the premises with 
gas, procuring a new engine and a new corn-mill, raising and 
remodelling the old barn, the erection of barn-sheds, and all 
improvements on the farm have been made from, and done by, 
the money saved from the annual appropriations of 1869, '70, 
and '71, while we now have an unexpended balance of 
$20,849.76 from the appropriation of 1872 ($50,000) to meet 
our expenses for the quarter, ending December 31, besides 
$2,649.41 to complete our gas-works and other improvements 
already commenced and contemplated, and there were $1,449.22 
that expired by limitation and were* never drawn from the treas- 
ury of the Commonwealth. 

The year before we came here there were produced on the 
farm 13,813 gallons of milk, and 12,650 gallons were purchased 
at a cost of $2,530 ; while the current year there have been pro- 
duced 28,171 gallons, more than double the amount of five years 
ago, amounting, at 20 cents per gallon, to $5,634.20. The 



1872.] PUBLIC DOOUMENT-^No. 25. 23 

amount of hay raised on the farm in 1868 was 114 tons, while 
this year we have cut 172, and 14 tons of Hungarian grass, in 
all 187 tons, — -a gain of more than 10 tons. This increase comes 
in part from thirty acres now used as mowing, which we have 
cleared of stones and seeded to grass. We have also ploughed 
and cleared of bushes and stones, more than forty acres of pas- 
ture, have cleared several acres of wood, and converted the 
same to pasturage, cut the bushes and grubbed the brakes on 
the balance; so that the pastures of the farm will now more 
easily sustain forty cows, than twenty-five in 1868. 

The products of the farm, which are for consumption by the 
family alone, amount to more than nine thousand dollars, 
according to the appraisal of Mr. Bishop, besides the hay, 
appraised at over four thousand dollars, more than 2,800 bushels 
of potatoes and roots, for consumption by the cows that furnish 
the milk, and teams that do the work, appraised at over twelve 
hundred dollars, and 400 cords of manure appraised at sixteen 
hundred dollars, which will be used to keep the land in heart 
and produce the crops the coming year. Deducting the interest 
on the amount of the appraisal of the farm, the grain purchased 
and the labor on the farm, and the profits may then be reckoned 
by thousands of dollars. 

We have had no medical assistance during the year ; but have 
had valuable aid from those in charge of the wards at the hos- 
pital, and the wards of the younger children. During the year 
we have been free from any severe epidemic, but our hospital 
has had about the usual number of chronic and hereditary 
cases. 

Whole number of births, 6 ; — 5 males, 1 female. One birth 
has occurred since May 1st. The mother was sent from Tewks- 
bury for support here, because she had already one child in 
the Primary School. Four children were illegitimate. Three 
mothers were born in Ireland, and one in each of the States of 
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 

Whole number of births since the opening of the institution, 
382: males, 174; females, 208. 



24 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Table of Deaths. 

Under 5 years. 3 

Between 10 and 20, 6 

20 and 30, 2 

30 and 40, 1 

Total, 12 

Whole number of deaths since the opening of the institution, 
1,0 77 : males, 565 ; females, 512. The whole number of deaths 
for the year is 12: males, 6: females, 6. Six were members 
of the Primary School, — 3 males and 3 females. One died of 
spinal disease, at the age of 15, much deformed ; one of chronic 
diarrhoea, reduced to a mere skeleton, with a voracious appetite 
for months before his exit; and one died of dropsy, at eighteen 
years of age, who had returned from his wanderings to find a 
last resting-place where he had spent his earlier days. One of 
these cases was brought to us by cars, in an advanced stage of 
typhoid fever. Two children only died of acute disease, except 
the two returned from places, who came with disease of so 
grave a type that nothing would avail, save to make them cotn- 
foi table the few days they lingered with us. 

Since the institution was converted into a Primary School, 
we have laid out a new cemetery, and propose to fence the same, 
so that those who may close their earthly prilgrimage here may 
have a decent resting-place after life's fitful fever is over. Since 
then we have laid in their last rest two of the pupils formerly 
belonging to the school who had been away from us, but when 
stricken with disease came back to close their eyes amid the 
scenes of younger life, and with those with whom they asso- 
ciated in earlier days. 

The cares, the anxieties, the duties and the responsibilities of 
another year have terminated. Encouraged by the smiles of a 
kind Providence, let us hope to bear our anxieties more cheer- 
fully, and resolve to meet our responsibilities more faithfully, so 
long as anxieties must be borne and responsibilities met. 
HORACE P. WAKEFIELD, 

Moxson, Oct. 1, 1872. Superintendent and Physician. 



1872.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



25 



Statement No. 1. 

Nativity of Inmates received in the Almshouse from October 1, 1871, to May 1. 

1872. 



Massachusetts, 
Other States, . 
Ireland, 
England, . 
British Provinces, 
Germany, . 
France, 

Other foreign countries, 
Unknown, 
Total, 



* 



134 

49 

88 

19 

16 

11 

3 

6 

4 



-330 



Of the number received, there were from 



Palmer, . . . . . - 103 

Tewksbury State Almshouse, 56 

Visiting Agent of Board of State Charities, 39 

Worcester, 27 

Springfield, . 23 

Monson, 20 

Pittsfield and Shelburne, 7 each, . . . . . .14 

Bridgewater State Almshouse, 5 

Adams, Easthampton and Holyoke, 4 each, 12 

Boston, . . 3 

Holden, Dalton, Montague and New Braintree, 2 each, . . 8 

Amherst, Cheshire, Chicopee, Clarksburg, Greenwich, Harvard, 
Huntington, Lanesborough, Lee, Millbury, Milford, North- 
borough, Northampton, New Salem, Southbridge, Sturbridge, 

Uxbridge, Ware, Warren and Windsor, 1 each, .... 20 

Total, 330 



26 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Statement No. 2. 

Hie following Table shows the Number Admitted each Month, Age and Sex. 













£ 


o 


8 


o 
<* 


lO 


o 

5© 


o 




MONTHS. 


"3 

•a 

o 
Eh 


m 
"3 


CO 

o 

5 

a 

22 


- 

$4 

o 
>a 

C. 
- 

23 


Eh O 

a n 
hi 

pq 

11 


CO 

hi 

pq 

6 


%"% 
% - 
pq 

9 


Si 

pq 
4 


si 
is* 

pq 

1 


c 2 
? a 

3 


h 

— si 

pq 
1 


s 

> 

o 


October, . 


58 


36 


- 


November, 


47 


28 


19 


16 


8 


9 


5 


2 


5 


- 


1 


1 


December, 


49 


39 


10 


8 


10 


6 


5 


10 


2 


6 


2 


- 


January, . 


45 


37 


8 


1 


10 


16 


7 


3 


1 


5 


2 


- 


February, 


42 


33 


9 


8 


8 


11 


10 


3 


1 


- 


1 


- 


March, 


34 


24 


10 


4 


10 


8 


2 


6 


4 


- 


- 


- 


April, 


55 


35 


20 


16 


18 


9 


6 


2 


- 


1 


3 


- 


Totals, . 


330 


232 


98 


76 


75 


65 


44 


30 


14 


15 


10 


1 



Statement No. 3 
Detailed Account of Current M 
Bath tubs, .... 
Beans and pease, 155 bushels 
Blinds and doors, 

Books, newspapers, postage and stationery, 
Bricks, 

Brushes and brooms, . 
Carriages and harnesses, 
Cement and lime, .... 

Coffee, 3,604 pounds, and tea, 200 pounds, 
Coal, 309 tons, . . . 
Corn, 1,200 bushels, and oats, 186 bushels 
Crockery and glass-ware, . 
Dry goods, . 
Teed and meal, . 
Fertilizers, 
Flour, 685 barrels, 
Fish. 15,432 pounds, . 
Furniture, . 



Carried forward, 



'penditures. 



$133 43 


306 29 


432 95 


320 04 


104 76 


128 74 


523 93 


190 21 


514 58 


2,003 96 


1,093 34 


333 91 


2,781 70 


693 37 


71 53 


5,627 00 


596 85 


479 50 



aie,c 



09 



1872.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 27 

Brought forward, $16,336 09 

Groceries, 412 14 

Hardware, . 679 41 

Hay and straw, 20£ tons, 335 80 

Improvements, 1,693 25 

Kettles and tank, 423 00 

Labor, 2,278 65 

Live stock, 635 00 

Lumber, 1,541 63 

Mason-work, . 442 00 

Meats, 40,696 pounds, 2,980 74 

Medicines, 121 54 

Miscellaneous, . 681 19 

Molasses, 1,435 gallons, and sugar, 2,754 pounds, . . . 1,246 39 

Moving building, 126 00 

Oil, 560 gallons, 181 05 

Paint-stock and painting 1,618 44 

Eepairs, 912 76 

Eice, 3,433 pounds, •. 285 86 

Salaries, 12,427 23 

Salaries of Inspectors, 320 00 

Shoes, leather and repairs, 965 18 

Smith- work and stock, 322 40 

Tailoring, 270 00 

Tools, agricultural and mechanical, 157 33 

Transportation of freight and passengers, .... 669 79 

848,062 87 



28 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



HONDO 
MNNQO 

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cr> — < co — i 



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1872.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



29 



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30 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



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1872.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25, 



31 



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32 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON". 



[Oct. 



Statement No. I 
Products of the Farm. 





146 tons English hay. 


32 bushels pease in pod. 


26 " rowen. 


2 " currants. 


15 " Hungarian grass. 


50 boxes strawberries. 


10 " corn-fodder. 


2 bushels quinces. 


45 " green fodder. 


1 " pears. 


165 bushels sweet corn ears. 


200 " cider apples. 


4 tons winter squashes. 


35 barrels winter apples. 


l£ " summer squashes. 


16 bushels cucumbers. 


1 " water-melons. 


51 " tomatoes. 


h, " musk-melons. 


206 " onions. 


800 pounds pie plant. 


2,414 " potatoes. 


1,414 " veal. 


2,000 heads cabbage. 


8,019 " beef. 


28,171 gallons milk. 


9,838 " pork. 


100 celery plants. 


20 bushels parsnips. 


20 pounds garden seeds. 


248 " beets. 


15 cords wood. 


800 " mangolds. 


4,500 feet lumber. 


300 " ruta-bagas. 


18 pigs. 


200 " English turnips. 


19 calves. 


400 u carrots. 


1 colt. 


1£ " shelled beans. 


206 pounds calfskin. 


8 " beans in pod. 


35 " wool. 



1872.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



33 





iTM 


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Abscess, . 

Asthma, .... 

Blindness, 

Boils, .... 

Catarrh, .... 

Convulsions, . 

Conjunctivitis, 

Croup, .... 

Debility, .... 

Diarrhoea, 

Disease of spine, 

Dropsy, .... 

Fever, simple, . 

Fever, intermittent, 

Fever, typhoid, 

Frostbite, ... 

Fractures and dislocations, 

Headache, . . . 

Heart disease, . 

Influenza, 



34 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



•pnoj, 


H5O(MW«5^0iSMHMNCO 

■H/l CO rH JO CM 


CO -* 
O CO 




•jeqraoidag 


OH | | | I (NHH | IJOCO 


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CO rH 


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I 


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CO rH 


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ft 


Nausea, 

Parturition, 

Phthisis, 

Scrofula, 

J3ore head and limbs, 

Tonsilitis, 

Wounds and bruises, 


Total, 

Monthly average, 



1872.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



35 



fe 



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© |« 

6 si 

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B 5-5 

v 

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Abscess, . 

Convulsions, . . 

Dropsy, . . . * . 

Diarrhoea, 

Fever, intermittent, 

Fever, typhoid, 

Heart disease, . 

Pneumonia, 

Phthisis, . 

Spine disease, . 

Tonsilitis, 



36 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



REPORT OF CHAPLAIN AND PRINCIPAL. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen : - — Your attention is called to the follo'vins: state- 
nient of changes in the institution, table of attendance, and 
remarks concerning the children : — 



Number of Children admitted from October 1, 1871, to October 1, 1872. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


From Monson State Almshouse (before May 1), 
From temporary support and custody at Monson 

(since May 1), 

Returned from places, 


71 

27 
51 


40 

13 
25 


Ill 

40 
79 




152 


78 


230 



Xumber of Children removed from October 1, 1871, to October 1, 1872. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


To homes, 

To Lancaster Industrial School, .... 
To Westborough Reform School, .... 

Died, 

Eloped, 

By settlement, 

Discharged by Board of State Charities, . 


125 

2 

3 
5 

1 
39 


43 
4 

3 
2 

17 


168 
4 
2 
6 
7 
1 
56 




175 


69 


244 


Whole number of children, October 1, 1871, 

Xet loss during the year, 


273 
23 


82 
9 


355 
14 


Whole number of children, September 80, 1872, 


250 


91 


341 


Whole number of children during the year, 


425 


.160 


585 


Average number, 


361 



1872.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 37 

For the first time in our reports, we may speak of the school, 
not as an adjunct or department of another establishment, but 
as an institution independent in name and in fact, devoted ex- 
clusively to the education and reformation of the young. Dur- 
ing the year, having broken away from the leading strings by 
which it has been hitherto somewhat ignobly held, it now essays 
to walk alone, and do its work its own appropriate, way. The 
experiment is thus far of short duration, yet the healthy devel- 
opment of these last five mouths, gives promise of a future 
career of increased prosperity and usefulness. The reproach of 
the name has been removed, and by degrees the old associations 
will become obliterated, as the means are applied for making 
this noblest of charities the most effective. In proportion as 
the plan of benefiting the needy is narrowed down to the class 
of deserving poor, like the orphan and the neglected, or to those 
who are not yet hardened in crime, the opportunities for labor 
and the prospects of success are multiplied, in assisting them 
to lay the foundation of worthy and virtuous lives. 

Without venturing to predict future results, we will briefly 
allude to what is already apparent. Our remarks concerning 
the children may be arranged under three heads. 



1. Their Moral Condition. 
When the circumstances in the previous life of many of these 
children are considered, it seems surprising that even a passa- 
ble standard of morality can be attained by such as are asso- 
ciated together in the institution. From their earliest years 
they have been addicted to lying, stealing, Sabbath-breaking and 
profanity ; not a few of them have acquired the filthy habits of 
chewing and smoking, and some have actually been arrested for 
drunkenness. One would naturally expect to find these in- 
fluences so operating upon the school as to lower the standard 
of virtue, and make the work of government extremely diffi- 
cult. But from various causes the opposite is true. The 



38 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

scholars are made to understand that the length of their stay 
in the institution depends considerably upon their behavior. 
The best are selected for good homes, or, after a period of trial, 
are allowed to return to their friends. In addition to this 
motive, the stimulus of reward is continually offered to the de- 
serving in the present system of management. 

The plan described under the head of" Methods of Discipline 
employed in the School," in our report of 1870, is still pursued, 
and though the charm of novelty has long since worn off, it 
continues to answer well the purpose for which it was designed. 
The " Band of the Tried and True," has had, during two years 
and a half, a membership of 212, and in most cases the six 
pledges of honesty, truth, purity, temperance, order and trust, 
have been sacredly kept. From time to time other tests have 
been added, so that now, those who prove themselves trust- 
worthy for months in succession, have their names affixed to a 
u roll of honor," and their pictures are placed in a frame in the 
chapel. This method of securing good order is found to be 
much more satisfactory in every point of view, than frequent 
resort to corporal punishment. In carrying out such a plan, 
all depends upon the hearty cooperation of those persons who 
have the children in charge. We have been peculiarly fortunate 
in this respect. Teachers and officers, for the most part, have 
entered heartily into the spirit of the work. To none have we 
been more indebted than to the late Mr. J. Cristy, who had the 
care of the boys about sixteen months, and whose sad death by 
drowning, on the 1 7th of August, deprived us of a valuable 
assistant. He was eminently qualified for his position by the 
rare combination of traits which marked his character. Firm- 
ness and energy were united with a singular tenderness for, and 
sympathy with, the boys entrusted to his care. He aimed to 
improve their morals, and by frequent counsel and words of 
approval, encouraged them in the way of reform. So strongly 
were they attached to him, they seemed to mourn his loss as 
that of a companion and a brother rather than of a master. 



1872.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— ISO. 25. 39 

Their regard for him was touchingly manifested at his funeral, 
when they brought flowers from their own gardens to place upon 
his coffin, and these testimonials, amounting to scores of 
bunches, were afterwards scattered upon his distant grave. 

The position of assistant is now filled by Mr. I. H. Easter- 
brook, a graduate of the Agricultural College at Amherst. 



2. Their Mental Discipline. 

The number of schools is the same as heretofore. Several 
causes have tended to produce in them a marked improvement. 
A higher rank of scholarship has been sustained throughout the 
year in comparison with previous years, notwithstanding the 
most promising pupils have often been selected to go out. 
Many of those who have been admitted from the courts, have 
already had the advantages of the city schools, and they imme- 
diately take position in the advanced classes. We have also 
aimed to perfect the system of classification, and have so far 
succeeded, that, in several of the schools, the same text-book is 
used throughout. No. 1 has in its afternoon division, Sargent's 
Fourth Reader, and in its morning division, the Progressive 
Third Reader. No. 2, comprising 63 scholars, uses only the 
Third Reader, with oral exercises in geography and arithmetic. 
No. 3, with 61 scholars, used Sargent's Second Reader until a 
few months since, when they were all advanced to the Third 
Reader. We have not been able to make such a distinct gra- 
dation in the remaining three schools, althought they all have 
made steady improvement under faithful and competent teach- 
ers. Twenty-five hours a week are nominally devoted to study 
and recitation, yet many of the scholars, being employed in va. 
rious kinds of labor, attend school only half that time. Classes 
are taught in vocal music and in writing, under the direction of 
Mrs. Hill. A few volumes have been added to the library, 
making the present number of books 392. 



40 



ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Number of Children attending School September 30, 1872. 



No. of 

School. 


TEACHER. 


Boys. 


1 
Girls. Total. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


Miss Mary E. Witt, 

Miss Clara Gowing, 

Mrs. II. E. Darte, 

Miss Ada 0. Copeland, .... 
Miss Myra A. Smith, .... 
Miss Ida Willey, . 


53 
63 
61 
56 

21 


10 

53 
25 


63 
63 
61 
56 
53 
46 




254 


88 


342 


Average attendance during the year, . 


344 



3. Their Industrial Occupation. 
Since the abolishment of the Almshouse, the children have 
been made more serviceable than formerly in domestic labor, 
and in work upon the farm. Besides the regular duties of the 
laundry, bakery, and kitchen, they have found light employment 
at times in various ways in other parts of the establishment. 
One man has had a company of thirty or forty boys under his 
care at work in the garden or elsewhere every pleasant day 
during the summer. Different classes have alternated in this 
way, so as to allow all an opportunity to study either in the 
forenoon or afternoon. We cannot furnish an estimate of what 
they have accomplished. Very likely the principal advantage 
has been to the boys themselves. Their physical condition is 
better for the out-door exercise. They also take hold of study 
with more zest for having spent a part of the day in labor. 
What is better, they have been obtaining a practical knowledge 
of the common things of life, and the methods of working. 
Most of the children come to us from the cities. They have 
spent their time heretofore in lounging about the streets, falling 
into mischief out of sheer want of occupation; or else they 
have wrought in the mills like human machines, performing a 
regular task, with no object but the scanty pay. We find many 
with such antecedents, thoroughly conversant with evil, yet 



1872.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No, 25. 41 

ignorant of the commonest employments of the household or 
farm. It is a needful part of the education of these boys and 
girls, to familiarize them with the details of work, so that they 
may be in a measure furnished and prepared for rough contact 
with the world. The great mistake of the present day, observ- 
able in all departments of instruction, from the primary school 
to the higher seminaries of learning, is in substituting a mere 
book knowledge for a practical acquaintance with the ordinary 
affairs of life. Manual labor schools' are needed alike for the 
rich and the poor, as an introductory step to a reform in the 
social economy. In these days of sudden mutations in fortune, 
it is certainly safe to know how to work, and to work advanta- 
geously, whenever the necessity arises. 

The introduction of some form of mechanical labor into our 
institution, whereby a portion of the boys may find regular oc- 
cupation, would not only serve a good purpose in training them 
to work, but it w ould doubtless tend to promote good order, and 
make them more contented. Judging also from the interest 
which many of them have already manifested in the care of 
their little beds of flowers, we think it would not be an un- 
profitable experiment to set apart in the future an acre or more 
for the special purpose of teaching the most tractable of the 
boys the best methods of gardening. By assigning a small tract 
to each one, they will be made to feel a kind of responsibility 
lor the success of its cultivation, and regarding themselves as 
tenants for the time, with a lien upon the land by right of ser 
vice, will forget their old associations, and be satisfied to remain 
with us until suitable homes can be provided for them. We be- 
lieve that some of the children who have been with us the 
longest, appreciate the efforts which have been made to improve 
their condition during the past years. They are learning to 
look upon the institution more as a home. The more we can 
do to make it such, the pleasanter will be the reminiscences of 
it, when they shall have gone out into the world. Realizing 
that the influences connected with their life here, will be in 
many cases permanent, it becomes us to furnish them with every 
6 



42 ALMSHOUSE AT MONSON. [Oct. 

possible facility for the acquisition of practical knowledge, and 
for advancement in the paths of truth and virtue. 

With sincere gratitude to the Father of all, for His guidance 
and help during another year of service in this interesting and 
hopeful field, this Annual Report is respectfully submitted. 

CHARLES F. FOSTER. 



v